Mt. Iwate, a composite or strato-volcano, Backbone Range, elevation 6,734 feet. -- Contributing to the mountainous terrain of Japan are about 200 volcanoes constituting about 6 percent of the Japanese land area. Sixty of these have been active at since the 7th century, sometimes with disastrous results. Volcanoes are formed at boundaries of converging earth plates where one plate descends deep enough beneath the other plate to start melting. The molten rock material, called magma below the earth's surface and lava above it, is relatively light and rises to the surface where it erupts. Depending upon the composition of the lava, eruptions range from relatively quiet extrusion of lava to hazardous explosive ejection of ash and burning gases. -- Some volcanoes, such as Mt. Iwate, erupt lava of different composition at different times. These are called composite or strato-volcanoes and have typical concave shapes with steeper slopes at the top.
Flat land used for cities, Tokyo viewed from the top of Tokyo Tower. -- Flat land is scarce and very valuable in Japan. It is the most productive agricultural land, and also the easiest land upon which to build. Consequently. there is great competition and tension between development and agricultural interests. As the population increases and more people move from rural to urban areas, Japanese cities continue to expand and an increasing proportion of flat land is lost to agricultural and other uses.
This photo of the hypocenter, the point of detonation of the atomic bomb, was taken in the autumn of 1945. The bomb had exploded in the air, approximately 600 meters above the Industrial Promotion Hall. -- The devastation caused by the blast and the fires that followed was total. It is said that the city was reduced to ashes covered by a crust of materials melted by the heat, that the city appeared to be covered with lava. -- A survey completed in 1946 assessed the physical damage in these terms: Of 76,327 buildings in the city of Hiroshima at the time of the blast, 47,989 (62.9%) were totally collapsed and burned. 3,818 (5%) were totally collapsed. 18,360 (24%) were half collapsed and burned, damaged beyond repair. The staggering total of the damage figures is that of the 76,327 buildings in the city, 70,147 (91.9% of all buildings in the entire city) were burned or collapsed by the blast beyond any possibility of repair. -- This image is a section of a photo that is now a wa
Coastal features, deeply embayed Pacific coast, Yamada. -- The coastline at Yamada is irregular with large bays separated by mountainous promontories that jut into the sea. (Compare this coastline with the straight one shown in slide 1.18.) This kind of coastline can be produced where rocks and geological structures trend across the coastline so that shoreline erosion of weaker rocks produces bays while more resistant rocks are left as headlands and promontories. It can also result from submergence of a mountainous land surface where the flooded valleys form bays and the mountains stand above the sea.
Stoneware jar on a stand, from the ancient region of Gaya in Korea. The stand accommodates the jar, which is round bottomed and could not stand on its own. The piercing of the stand base is probably visual, rather than being designed to serve a particular purpose. The side of the jar shows natural glazing, in the form of wood ash from the kiln fire that settled on the shoulder of the piece and fused with silica in the clay to create a natural, "accidental" glaze. (Gift of Juliet Boone, 1991.150.a-.b )
Incised valley and upland terrace, Tanohata. -- If stream erosion and lowering of a land surface exceeds the rate of uplift of that surface, topographic relief decreases. This reduces stream gradients and velocity and causes streams to begin shifting laterally creating floodplains and eventually broad, nearly flat surfaces. If uplift is subsequently renewed, relief and stream gradients to the sea increase, causing the streams to erode downward once again. This can produce stream valleys incised into remnant terraces of the old flat surface, as seen here. -- Similar topographic features are produced when flat, wave-eroded surfaces along a coastline are uplifted and then cut into by downcutting streams flowing to the new, lower shoreline.
On August 6, 1952, seven years after the bombing of Hiroshima, five war orphans unveiled the cenotaph for the victims of the A-bomb blast. It is known as the Memorial Monument for Hiroshima, City of Peace. Approximately 1,000 persons attended the unveiling ceremony. Each year, on August 6, the memorial service is held in front of this monument located in the Peace Memorial Park. In this photo from 1952, one can still see private houses that had been rebuilt after the war in the area that is now the Peace Park.
Photograph of the mushroom cloud rising over Hiroshima taken about two minutes after the explosion. Photograph taken from the Kanda bridge, Furuichi-cho, about 7 kilometers from the hypocenter, the point of detonation.
A-bombed woman searching for family. -- Expalnation by the Artist: " An A-bombed woman searching for her family west entrance, Hiroshima Station." The scene depicted was 1,900 meters fro the hypocenter, west entrance of Hiroshima Station, Matsubara-cho. Artist was 19 at the time of the bombing, 76 when he drew this picture.
Staring dazed at scenes from hell -- Explanation by the Artist: The atomic flame turned humans into insects, smashing people like ants. Running blindly, severely burned, covered with blood, pathetic people turned insects formed a picture of hell. Precious irreplaceable lives were snuffed out in the flames. Even the rivers were unrecognizable in the burning city of Hiroshima. Truly, a picture of hell. Worried about my relatives, I stared at it all in a daze." -- The scene depicted was 2,000 meters from the hypocenter, Hijiyama Hill (now Hijiyama Park). The artist was 22 at the time of the bombing, 51 when she drew this picture.
The female student I passed was my sister -- Explanation by the artist: "It was like a road but there was no road. Not a single person could get through. I was worried about getting there before dark, so I walked right by two female students. One had bandages on her head and arms. One arm was in a sling of calico cloth. The other was wearing a uniform drenched with blood, her head wrapped, face covered with blood, hair singed red. She looked like a demon. For some reason, I spoke to her and discovered to my astonishment that she was my sisiter. I pinched my cheek thinking I must be dreaming." -- August 6, 1945, 3:30 - 4:00 p.m. -- 800m from the hypocenter, near Dobashi. The artist was 18 at the time of the bombing, 48 when she drew this picture.
Water! Water, please! -- Explanation by the Artist: -- "'Water! Water! Water!' Voices reverberated through the brick building. I was told, 'get their names and addresses,' so I went around asking them. Some moved their mouths but I couldn't hear what they said. Some were already dead. One answered clearly. 'I'm Hitoshi Miyake. first year, Class 1, First Hiroshima Prefectural Junior High School.' A little later I went back to see him and Hitoshi was dead, too. Thinking about how he must have felt, I felt compelled to report his death to his family. On my way home, I found his house and told them. His parents just cried and cried." -- The scene depicted was 2,670 meters from the hypocenter, Hiroshima Army clothing Depot, Deshio-cho (now, Deshio-cho 2-chome). The artist was 17 at the time of the bombing, 74 when she drew this picture.
Many names written in charcoal on a wall -- Explanation by the artist: "Part of the wall at Takeya Elementary School. The names of missing people were written in charcoal by those looking for them. 'Hisako Nishimura - tell me where your are - Mother' 'Kazuko, come here' 'Toshie Mitsutani is OK' 'Ippei Masuda, Miyoko is OK, going to Mukaihara' 'Father, Mother both OK, come to Hijiyama Gobenden.' " -- 1,280 m from the hypocenter, Takeya Elementary School, Takara-machi. The artist was 32 at the time of the bombing, 61 when he drew this picture.
Beginning the International Building in central Tokyo. the steelwork allows some flexibility to accomodate for the earthquake shocks. The weight of the steel structure causes it to sink into the swamp on which Tokyo is built, similar to those of Chicago and Shangai. The sign tells that the building has already sunk 18 of the 50 feet required for the four subtererrean stories. A maximum of 9 stories are permitted above ground. --This was the description to accompany this image as written by Arthur O. Rinden, the photographer. His description, which he referred to as a "script" was to accompany a slide show of the images for his family and others.
The First Elementary School, 2,600 meters from the hypocenter, and other building that survived the blast throughout the city were used as relief stations to provide the very minimal aid that was available to the victims of the blast.
Early morning, sixty years after the fateful early morning in 1945 -- a view across part of the harbor at Hiroshima, looking toward the city center in the distance, with its skyscrapers and bustling business center. Today Hiroshima is a vibrant city and there is little evidence of the utter destruction that was visited upon this site slightly over half a century ago.
Many of them are well cared for in Christiian orphan homes-but when they are older what will they do? Most Japanese people say, 'They are yours- take them.' But what kind of a welcome awaits them in race-conscious America? --This was the description to accompany this image as written by Arthur O. Rinden, the photographer. His description, which he referred to as a "script", was to accompany a slide show of the images for family and others.
Only on holidays are the beautiful kimono seen in significant numbers. 'Charlie Chaplin' proves that Japanese businessmen also believe that 'It pays to advertise.' --This was the description to accompany this image as written by Arthur O. Rinden, the photographer. His description, which he referred to as a "script", was to accompany a slide show of the images for family and others.
Election Day in an industrial area of Tokyo shows political representatives using megaphones as 'loudspeakers' as they describe the virtues of their candidates. Each party representative awaits his turn. One candidate is fined for spending over $3,000. on election expenses! Because all Japanese are literate we can more easily understand why 90% exercise their right to vote. --This was the description to accompany this image as written by Arthur O. Rinden, the photographer. His description, which he referred to as a "script", was to accompany a slide show of the images for family and others.
We eat four times as much protein as the average Japanese. Puffed rice made on the spot by an itinerant processor. He puffs the rice supplied to him. --This was the description to accompany this image as written by Arthur O. Rinden, the photographer. His description, which he referred to as a "script", was to accompany a slide show of the images for family and others.
Whale meat, brought in refrigerator ships from the Arctic regions is unloaded to be sold from retail meat shops. --This was the description to accompany this image, as written by Arthur O. Rinden, the photographer. His description, which he referred to as a "script" was to accompany a slide show of images for his family and others.
A wood carver on the island of Oshima- typical of many household industries --This was the description to accompany this image as written by Arthur O. Rinden, the photographer. His description, which he referred to as a "script", was to accompany a slide show of the images for family and others.
Rice straw is used to make rope, mats, and sandals. --This was the description to accompany this image as written by Arthur O. Rinden, the photographer. His description, which he referred to as a "script", was to accompany a slide show of the images for family and others.
The injuries inflicted by the atomic bomb appeared to be healing by the end of 1945, but a high percentage of those who seemed to be recovering later fell victim to a vast array of aftereffects, including keloid scars, leukemia and other cancers. Since 1946, thousands of people have passed away each year, and the pain and anxiety of many survivors continue.