Closely following the notion of innovative geographic clusters, this paper examines knowledge flows in the US agriculture industry for evidence of innovative agglomeration. The data indicate that a closer distance between any two agricultural patent origins increases the probability that one cites the other as prior art. Further, subtle interregional variations characterize the degree to which proximity advances agricultural innovation. Finally, the results show that older innovations in agriculture proliferate more readily than recently created knowledge.
The ultimate goal of any world-class swimmer is to break a record, and technology enables that accomplishment. Using 40 years of data at the individual, national and international level, we identify the quantitative impact that innovation has had on the number of record breaks. We find small but statistically significant impacts on both the number of breaks and the interval between breaks.
Using patent citation data for the U.S., we test whether knowledge spillovers in biotechnology are sensitive to distance, and whether that sensitivity has changed over time. Controlling for self-citation by inventor, assignee and examiner, cohort-based regression analysis shows that physical distance is becoming less important for spillovers with time.
This paper considers the challenges to the dissemination of environmental innovation. Following a brief exploration of the legal and regulatory regimes surrounding environmental technologies, the paper examines diffusion mechanisms, market factors, social characteristics and political elements that facilitate and complicate dissemination. Given the importance of innovation to economic development and growth, the diffusion of innovation is of great interest to economists and policymakers alike.
In an effort to explore the potential for financing environmental innovation, this paper examines different forms of financing and attempts to evaluate their effectiveness. The study considers both public and private forms of funding as well as providing policy suggestions for the support of appropriate financing for eco-innovation.
This paper aims to summarize the state of academic knowledge surrounding the economics of environmental innovation. Following a definition of environmental technology, the paper enumerates and describes the obstacles or constraints to the development of eco-innovation.
During the tabulation of votes in the 2000 presidential election, the world was shocked at the technological inadequacy of electoral equipment in many parts of the US. In reaction to public dismay over "hanging chads", Congress quickly enacted the Help America Vote Act (HAVA), legislation to fund the acquisition of advanced vote-counting technology. However, the intention was to enable, rather than mandate, choices of new electoral equipment. This paper takes advantage of a unique historical opportunity to test whether electoral equipment follows the pattern predicted by well-established models of innovation diffusion, merging electoral data with census data on socioeconomic characteristics. We infer that fiscal constraints to acquisition are strong but are not the only limitations to technology adoption, particularly within certain types of easily identifiable populations.
This is a study of the gugak orchestra and its role in Korean musical culture. What is gugak? Jong-mi Kim states that there are three situations in which music can be deemed gugak. The first case is when the music is played by traditional instruments, the second is when the music incorporates gugak characteristics, and the third is when both factors are present in the music (Kim 2004:31). Dongeun Noh argues that during the Japanese Occupation (1910-1945), the term gugak was coined to specify music that was specifically Korean. After Korean music was recognized as a cultural expression, the public began to think of it as one genre among many, which lowered its status in Korean musical culture (in Kim 2004:26). In 1962, the South Korean government passed a Cultural Properties Protection Law hoping to retain the heritage that was lost through decades of war. In 1972, the government passed a Cultural and Arts Promotion Law to give “financial support to preserving the nation’s architecture and maintaining arts and crafts” (Seth 2011:489). It was during this time, through government funding and the desire to preserve culture, that innovation in Korean traditional music began to emerge. This project is a study of tradition and innovation in Korean music, which is a valuable cultural asset to Korean people in and outside of Korea. The music encompasses the foundation of Korean roots and carries the story of Korean history. In this project, I focus on the Gyeonggi Provincial Traditional Music Orchestra and the gugak orchestra’s function and role in Korean musical society. I also present diverse opinions about innovation in traditional music expressed by current Korean performers.