This paper examines attitudes towards immigration in 19 European countries. Situated within a societal context of rising right-wing populist governments and the constituents that voted them into office, this study explores the degree of influence individual and country level characteristics have on attitudes towards immigration in Europe. Data from the European Social Survey 2014 was used at the first, individual level of analysis. Data from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s 2011-2012 Factbook was used at the second, country level of analysis. Using multilevel modelling techniques, a hierarchical linear model with random intercept and country level covariates was produced, followed by an analysis of ranked country effects. The findings demonstrate that individual level variables are much more important when it comes to determining anti-immigration attitudes, and that Central European countries tend to display more negative attitudes, while Nordic and Western countries show more positive outlooks on immigration.
There are two counter-intuitive trends in technological collaboration currently at work, making collaborative patent applications less common but where they exist, the collaborations involve more partners. Patent data are used to examine these trends along with the impact of two recent policy changes, including the relevance for particular nations and technologies.
This paper explores the motivations of unaccompanied child migrants who arrived in the United States from Central America in the spring and summer of 2014. There is a long history of migration from Central America to the United States for a variety of economic, political, and environmental reasons, many of which can be understood in the context of sociological theories of migration. However, the recent surge in migration from the Northern Triangle countries of El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala indicates a significant change in patterns of migration, particularly among children. Most children are fleeing violence from gangs and other criminal organizations, lack of economic or educational opportunity, or domestic abuse in their home countries. Once in the United States, however, many find themselves unable to regularize their legal status due to procedural and political concerns about accepting large numbers of immigrants. These findings have important implications for both this population of vulnerable children and for the United States’ immigration system. This study draws on screenings conducted by a nonprofit organization with 1,349 children held in Office of Refugee Resettlement shelters and uses quantitative methods to examine the associations between children’s reasons for migration and their age, gender, country of origin, and indigenous status.