Beginning with President Trump’s speech against the national anthem protestors in September of 2017, this study considers how external sociopolitical events interacted with the network structure of the 2017 National Football League to alter the salience of member identities and the resultant patterns of protest activity within the league. Using group membership data on the full population of 2,453 football players, I analyze protest participation by membership in race and status groups and by the network variables of degree, betweenness, and closeness centrality. Black and elite players are both overrepresented among protesters throughout the season. The margins of overrepresentation narrowed during an increase in demonstrations after Trump’s first criticisms but had widened to their initial levels by the end of the season. The mean centralities of the protesting groups varied from week to week due to a temporary increase in the salience of the NFL player identity and to its interaction with racial identities. In general, protesters had lower mean degree and closeness centralities and a higher mean betweenness centrality than players who abstained from protest. Those who participated in high risk forms of activism also tended to have lower mean degree and closeness centralities and a higher mean betweenness centrality than those who opted for low risk demonstrations. These findings indicate that sociopolitical events can implicate different identities, changing their salience in the decision to join or abstain from a social movement.
The field of small-scale agriculture in the United States has become an outlet for women who growers to have a “place at the table” in a traditionally male dominated space. There has been research done regarding the ways in which agriculture has given women a space to nurture themselves, their passions, and their communities through food. The small-scale agriculture has also become a place for consumers to reconnect with their food production. The qualitative, ethnographic data was collected through participant observation and interviews at one agricultural site in northern Colorado. This research focused on the ways in women, at one agricultural site, who are growers, both seasonal and professionally, manage the traditionally male occupation, care work associated with increased face-to-face contact with customers, identity management, and physical markers of manual labor. The results of this research indicate that women working in agriculture are often forced to manage their identities as women who do manual labor as well has engage in care work. The care work took several forms and varied between seasonal farm workers and professional farmers. The results of this research also indicated that burnout was experienced by seasonal and professional farmers in different ways; emotional, physical, or a combination of both.