Defendants and offenders are charged for many government services that were once free, including those that are constitutionally required. Research establishes that court costs, fees, and fines exacerbate poverty for individuals in the adult criminal justice system and their families. However, I hypothesize that there is a more direct effect of fines on recidivism and test it on the ex-prisoner cohort from Maricopa County, Arizona. While the research concludes that “Tarrif fine” does have some positive and significant effect on recidivism, I do not find conclusive evidence on the impact of fines on recidivism.
We model the diffusion of economic knowledge using an epidemiological model of susceptible, exposed, infected, and recovered populations (SEIR). Treating bibliographic citations as evidence of contagion, we estimate the coefficients of a four-equation system simultaneously for each of 759 subfields of economics. Results show that some subfields grow endogenously much faster than others, and just over half have basic reproduction properties sufficient to ensure survival without the annual addition of new protégé scholars.