This thesis explores the ways in which introversion and extroversion, vulnerability, and male inexpressiveness are discussed in the sociological literature. I decided to study how introversion, extroversion and emotional expression are experienced differently between men and women at a selective liberal arts college. I interviewed 16 people, nine women and seven men. I found that introversion and extroversion are not just personality traits, but that men and women experience them differently because of pressure to follow societal gender roles. Specifically, I examine the hookup culture as a specific example of how the avoidance of vulnerability in the power struggle between men and women create a hookup script that is inherently unequal. It is oppressive to both men and women because of the roles that it pressures them to play, regardless of whether their feelings or desires match the roles or not.
In band-winged grasshoppers (subfamily Oedipodinae), the variety of hindwing colors—ranging from blue to red—is both striking and unexplained. Hindwing color can vary both within and between species. However, the functional significance, if any, of this variation is unknown. Notably, the colorful hindwings are revealed only in flight, and remain hidden in stationary individuals. Although experimental evidence is lacking, this flash of color has been proposed to 1) startle potential predators, 2) to signal the quality of a potential mate, and 3) to enhance species recognition. To elucidate their potential function(s), here I measure the spectral and spatial characteristics of the hindwing patterns in 6 different band-winged species. I then model how an avian predator or potential mate might view grasshopper wings at behaviorally relevant distances. These data suggest that there is a rapid change in conspicuousness as a grasshopper moves from rest to flight regardless of the color vision of the receiver. However, there is little within species variation in coloration or wing patterning. My results indicate that while hindwings 1) may function as a protean defense against avian predators, 2) it is unlikely that they serve as a signal of mate quality, although, they 3) may deliver enough information for species recognition. This research helps to elucidate evolutionary relationships leading to the diversification of behavior, visual systems, and coloration within band-winged grasshoppers.