Total fertility rates in Brazil experienced a sharp decrease in the second half of the 20th century—from 6.3 children per woman in 1950 to 2.3 children per woman in 2000. Attempting to explain this phenomenon, current literature explores the correlation between fertility and media. However, few studies include a variable for geographical location in their models and even fewer include location as a variable of interest. This study intends to fill the gap in literature and provides a more comprehensive explanation of the effect of geographical location and mass media on a woman’s fertility. This study concludes that mass media has a greater impact on the fertility of women living in more remote places of residence. Additionally, women living in the North region have significantly more children than women living in other regions, and women living in capital cities have less variation in their responses than women living in other places of residence. These conclusions provide insight for improvement and possible future studies. Further, the increasing influence of media across places of residence presents an encouraging result; mass media can impact fertility in regions that are hard to reach, and it can be used as a means to educate people living in remote locations.
This paper explores the motivations of unaccompanied child migrants who arrived in the United States from Central America in the spring and summer of 2014. There is a long history of migration from Central America to the United States for a variety of economic, political, and environmental reasons, many of which can be understood in the context of sociological theories of migration. However, the recent surge in migration from the Northern Triangle countries of El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala indicates a significant change in patterns of migration, particularly among children. Most children are fleeing violence from gangs and other criminal organizations, lack of economic or educational opportunity, or domestic abuse in their home countries. Once in the United States, however, many find themselves unable to regularize their legal status due to procedural and political concerns about accepting large numbers of immigrants. These findings have important implications for both this population of vulnerable children and for the United States’ immigration system. This study draws on screenings conducted by a nonprofit organization with 1,349 children held in Office of Refugee Resettlement shelters and uses quantitative methods to examine the associations between children’s reasons for migration and their age, gender, country of origin, and indigenous status.