These six minerals are mounted on one slide to show comparative relief.
The feldspars in this thin section are partially sericitized and somewhat poikilitic and the biotite is substantially altered. Grains are generally anhedral in shape.
Large k-feldspar and quartz crystals provide a backdrop for the smaller, less well-preserved mafic phases in this sample. Decomposing biotite is frequently found interfingered with chlorite. Hornblende grains are rather skeletal. Plagioclase crystals have relatively rounded corners and tend to cluster together. Large anhedral aggregates of sphene are interspersed in the interstices between k-feldspar grains.
Perthitic intergrowths of k-feldspar and albite are prevalent throughout this coarse-grained, nearly allotriomorphic granite. Riebeckite and biotite are found intergrown together in anhedral masses. The rare tiny, equant olivine crystal is observable.
This coarse-grained sample contains phenocrysts of a wide variety of size and composition. The largest, visible in hand sample as whitish spheres with obvious rims, are intergrown, wedge-shaped k-feldspars and radiating blades of natrolite. A dusting of sericite throughout the k-feldspar gives a cloudy appearance to the these mineral aggregates. Randomly oriented grains of these same phases comprise the bulk of the 'groundmass' for this sample. Augite phenocrysts are the dominant mafic phase and display a variable degree of alteration to iddingsite?. A few grains of arfvedsonite can be seen associated with the pyroxenes.
This gabbro is altered to the point of being nearly unrecongnizable. All primary phases are obsecured secondary mineralization. Clays have replaced the plagioclase grains and mats of chlorite and iddingsite, with some minor biotite are found clustered around the euhedral opaques. Overprinting all of this are euhderal apatite grains that range up to nearly a centimeter in length.
This strongly foliated amphibolite shows evidence of mimetic growth of k-feldspar into elongate crystals due to restriction of a preexisting fabric defined by amphibole and micas. The dominant mica phase, chlorite, has anhedral (almost skeletal) grain shapes. Hornblende is the same. Both phases are highly embayed. Several hornblende grains contain euhedral feldspar 'inclusions' and the classic amphibole grain shape is lost along its margins due to encroaching feldspar grains. Chlorite tends to be associated with elongate epidote crystals or granular aggregates. Dusty fracture zones trace across the fabric of this sample and are filled with cataclastic breccia and glass. Euhedral apatite and small, rounded to larger, anhedral titanite grains are dispersed throughout the thin section, typically oriented with the foliation.
This hypocrystalline thin section contains a trachytic groundmass of plagioclase laths, biotite needles, elongate strings of quartz, and serpentine pseudomorphs. The phenocrystic population consists of rounded quartz grains, often with a calcite rim, and concentrically-zoned, euhedral to subhedral plagioclase blocks. The plagioclase is being replaced in places by calcite, which is also found in fractures within the sample.
The groundmass of this thin section comprises an intergrowth of k-feldspar and nephaline, as well as small euhedral diopsidic-augite crystals, biotite, and apatite. The phenocrystic phases are dominated by augite, many with partial rims of more diopsidic composition, and which are frequently zoned and twinned. Olivine is present adjacent to the pyroxenes and is commonly altered to biotite.
This seems to be a porphyritic basalt though the phenocrystic phases, presumably augite, are plucked enough as to be virtually nonexistent. The remainder of the thin section is a glassy groundmass with unoriented microlites. The microlitic phases are probably pyroxenes and plagioclase, though color, relief, birefringence, and extinction angles seem incongruent with these minerals.
This fine-grained, hypidiomorphic, inequigranular plutonic rock is intermediate in composition, with plagioclase as the dominant feldspar. K-feldspar is present in much lower abundance, and quartz is scarce. Mafic phases include anhedral biotite and hornblende, the latter of which is strongly chloritized.
Grain shapes in this thin section tend to be subhedral to anhedral with a great variety in grain size. Lath-shaped plagioclase grains have both albite and Carlsbad twins, while larger, more equant grains show concentric zoning. Other phases in this sample include strongly pleochroic biotite, clinopyroxene, nephaline, orthoclase, and opaques. The clinopyroxene, biotite, and opaques tend to cluster together. Fairly large, euhedral apatite crystals are found throughout.
Phenocrysts in this thin section are of augite, biotite, and opaques. Uralitization of augite is observed in one region of the sample and is absent elsewhere. One augite crystal appears dendritically intergrown with opaques. Nephaline, which is the dominant groundmass mineral, appears intergrown with another mineral though it is unclear which. These intergrowths are spherical in shape and observable at the macroscopic scale. Prismatic and radiating fibers of zeolites are found throughout. Apatite crystals span a great range of sizes with the longest crystals reaching more than a millimeter in length. Apatite crystals of a smaller size pervade the nephaline phase.
Randomly oriented biotite phenocrysts dominate this thin section. The interstices between phenocrysts contain prisms of k-feldspar, anhedral masses of calcite and nephaline, and radial splays of muscovite. Opaques are equant and up to 0.5mm in diameter. The nephaline phase has a bluish cast in cross-polarized light. The groundmass phases are cross-cut by a mesh-work of clays and various alteration products. Slightly diamond-shaped rutile is pervasive throughout.
This is a very hypidiomorphic coarse-grained sample consisting of large grains of augite, frequently intergrown with opaques, and intergrown k-feldspar and nephaline. Augite is found altering to biotite. Radiating splays of zeolite are present to varying degrees within the three copies of this thin section.
The two feldspar phases in this medium-grained, hypidiomorphic syenite are found in roughly equal abundance, though the plagioclase grains are subhedral to the k-feldspar's anhedral shape, and typically displays concentric zoning. Minor myrmekitic intergrowths between quartz and plagioclase are found between feldspar contacts. Both biotite and hornblende have highly irregular grain shapes.
Plagioclase is roughly twice as abundant than clinopyroxene in this sample, though where present, clinopyroxene grains are large and encompass multiple inclusions of plagioclase giving a spotty ophitic texture to the gabbro. Iddingsite replacement is extensive and plagioclase is altering to clays. Apatite is found in short stubby prisms, hexagonal cross sections, and long needles.
This coarse-grained dacite has a granitic texture of hypidiomorphic inequigranular plagioclase, hornblende, and augite. Secondary zeolites and calcite are found randomly throughout. This thin section is both too thick and plucking is disruptive of many hornblende grains.
The minerals in this sample all appear to intergrow with one another. Most grain boundaries are lobate, especially between feldspar phases and flame lamellae and perthitic intergrowths abound. Although a few hornblende crystals are euhdral in shape, the majority are found as rims around possible clinopyroxene or olivine grains and they tend to group with the other mafic phases. Euhedral apatite appear throughout.
This allotriomorphic granite shows evidence of weathering as most feldspars are partially obscured by a dusting of clay minerals. Tartan twinning of microcline is obvious throughout the sample. The curving of biotite cleavage and subhedral grain shapes indicates the biotite is not pristine. It is commonly found occurring with subhedral hornblende as well as large, clear to light brown, anhedral sphene crystals.
Grain shapes in this thin section are consistantly anhedral. Weathering of the feldspars give them a dusty appearance. Because the thin section is cut too thick, the birefringence of quartz and some k-feldspars is as high as second order blues. Mnay hornblende crystals are nearly opaque and they are frequently found surrounding and likely replacing inclusions of pyroxene (perhaps). The biotite and hornblende are rather skeletal. Euhedral sphene and apatite are occasionally scattered throughout.
This mineral phases in this gabbro are highly fractured and frequently embayed. The pyroxenes are roughly euhedral in shape and several equant grains are twinned. The opaques in this sample are typically equant in shape and contain inclusions of olivine or a fiery orange-red mineral that appears the same in plane- and cross-polarized light.
Most phases in this thin section are subhedral to anhedral in shape. The k-feldspar have patchy exsolution textures. Most other phases are sparsely distributed and generally subhedral to anhedral.
The largest crystals in this sample are augite, in which twinning is common, as is alteration to a mixture of chlorite and biotite, and the formation of glomeroporphyroclasts. Chlorite and biotite also are found rimming olivine grains, which are themselves clustered with augite and biotite crystals. The mafic phases are typically subhedral in shape, in contrast to the nephaline, k-feldspar, and zeolites which are anhedrally intergrown together in the interstices between augite crystals.
This hypidiomorphic, equigranular monazite has a classic granitic texture with a mosaic of grains all crystallizing simultaneously and impinging on one another's growth. Hornblende is particularly abundant and generally in contact with some combination of biotite, chlorite, and opaques. Some plagioclase grains are concentrically zoned.