Agriculture, like many primary and service sectors, is a frequent recipient of innovation intended for its use, even if those innovations originate in industrial sectors. The challenge has been identifying them from patent data, which are recorded for administrative purposes using the International Patent Classification (IPC) system. We reprogram a well-tested tool, the OECD Technology Concordance (OTC), to identify 16 million patents granted between 1975 and 2006 worldwide which have potential application in agriculture. This paper presents the methodology of that dataset’s construction, introduces the data via summaries by nation and industrial sector over time, and suggests some potential avenues for future exploration of empirical issues using these data.
The field of small-scale agriculture in the United States has become an outlet for women who growers to have a “place at the table” in a traditionally male dominated space. There has been research done regarding the ways in which agriculture has given women a space to nurture themselves, their passions, and their communities through food. The small-scale agriculture has also become a place for consumers to reconnect with their food production. The qualitative, ethnographic data was collected through participant observation and interviews at one agricultural site in northern Colorado. This research focused on the ways in women, at one agricultural site, who are growers, both seasonal and professionally, manage the traditionally male occupation, care work associated with increased face-to-face contact with customers, identity management, and physical markers of manual labor. The results of this research indicate that women working in agriculture are often forced to manage their identities as women who do manual labor as well has engage in care work. The care work took several forms and varied between seasonal farm workers and professional farmers. The results of this research also indicated that burnout was experienced by seasonal and professional farmers in different ways; emotional, physical, or a combination of both.
Closely following the notion of innovative geographic clusters, this paper examines knowledge flows in the US agriculture industry for evidence of innovative agglomeration. The data indicate that a closer distance between any two agricultural patent origins increases the probability that one cites the other as prior art. Further, subtle interregional variations characterize the degree to which proximity advances agricultural innovation. Finally, the results show that older innovations in agriculture proliferate more readily than recently created knowledge.
Authors argue that a paradigm shift is happening where viewing water solely as a commodity or resource and is being replaced by acknowledging its ecological and social connections. This has significant implications for water management, and how Colorado approaches water management is of significant interest as we move forward with the Colorado Water Plan. Through interviews with farmers and ranchers in the Gunnison River Basin of Colorado, this paper explores the theme of interconnectedness and how this affects the goals and best approach to water management. It concludes that despite a number of opinions which reflect the emerging paradigm, application of this paradigm varies greatly between people and topic, and can be more integrated into how we think of water management.