This paper uses an historical lens to contextualize the current water situation in Haiti and the present lack of water infrastructure in the country. Following the 2010 Earthquake, water infrastructure was severely damaged in Port-au-Prince and cholera spread to the country proceeding the earthquake. Point of use water filters have since been used as the most immediate means to ensure quality water within the home and have been prevalent post-earthquake. I began collecting research for this paper in June and July in 2011 in Port-au-Prince, Duchity, and Desab, Haiti. I interviewed 18 households with the help of two Haitians (one translator and one Biosand Filter installer) to learn how Haitian people use Biosand filters in their homes and to learn about the perceptions in improved health due to these filters.
Urbanization and anthropogenic development across North America are contributing to habitat loss and fragmentation. Urbanization also alters surface water systems, resulting in the elimination, alteration, and creation of aquatic ecosystems. Habitat loss is one factor contributing to the current native bee and honeybee (Apis mellifera) population declines across the continent. Previous studies on the effect of urbanization on bee populations have produced conflicting results, which suggest that further research is required. The effect of surface water availability on bee populations is not well studied. Using bee bowl traps and sweep net sampling techniques in household yards across the Twin Cities in Minnesota, I assessed bee abundance and bee community composition across an urban to rural gradient using housing density as a measure of degree of urbanization. I also examined and compared bee communities in yard sites both near to and far from major surface waters. Specifically, I tested the hypothesis that bee community assemblages are affected by both housing density and proximity to water, independently. I found no significant difference in bee abundance across the urban to rural gradient or at varying distances from water. However, I found a positive correlation between yard size and bee abundance and a significantly different community composition of bees near to and far from water. The results of this study imply that bee populations are not affected by housing density alone, and that other factors, such as habitat patch size as measured by yard size, may be contributing to reported declines in bee populations. Results also imply that altering surface waters in urban areas can impact bee community composition. These results can help guide future studies and inform urban planning and surface water alteration methods in order to conserve bee populations.
Historic documentation of life at the turn of the 19th century created by residents of Colorado Springs, Colorado in 1901 for the citizens of 2001. Under the direction of Louis R. Ehrich, a prominent 19th century businessman, the items were sealed in a chest which was stored in various buildings on the Colorado College campus until the official opening January 1, 2001 at the Charles Leaming Tutt Library. Contents of Ms349, Fd 8, City Water Supply - E. A. Sawyer include: 1 14-page, handwritten letter, dated August 2, 1901, signed by Edwin A. Sawyer of Sawyer and Garstin, Civil and Mining Engineers; 1 envelope marked “For the ‘Century Chest,’ the City’s Present Water Supply, by E. A. Sawyer.”
Water managers in the West are faced with multiple and compounding challenges from climate change, spatial-administrative complexity, legal uncertainty and increasing demand from population, industry and environment needs. This article thus assesses the current state of water management in California by specifically looking at the fragmentation of governance and management and the variable management schemes proposed to solve the problems. As current management has resulted in delays and failures, new political factions and economic and environmental burdens have added new stresses for water managers. My study area is the Central Coast of California specifically the geographic region of the Monterey Bay, with a specific focus on the Monterey Peninsula (MP), Carmel Bay and South Monterey Bay Region. The methodology consists of a qualitative examination of water governance and management responses in the region through interviews, analysis of documents and materials, and direct observations of practices. The results demonstrate that decentralized management in CA has led to multiple dimensions of jurisdictional fragmentation and legal uncertainty relevant to all water managers in the state. Furthermore, the paradigm shift that is taking place in water management towards a more integrative and adaptive framework is hampered by these barriers and has been slow to take effect. Thus, further research is necessary to monitor this shift and to document ways to overcome current legal and political-administrative barriers.