Previous research has demonstrated how the Great Recession affected attendance for Major League Baseball. The purpose of this study is to show that high levels of unemployment had the most significant impact on attendance during the recession. Data was collected from 2006, 2008, and 2011 to create a linear regression model that includes attendance for all thirty Major League Baseball teams, the unemployment rates in the corresponding Metropolitan Statistical Areas, and various demographics. Using OLS estimators, the results suggest that unemployment did not have a statistically significant effect on attendance. However, attendance was higher in areas with larger populations of women, African Americans, and people between the ages of 35 to 54. Thus, this study is useful because it provides the framework for an effective marketing plan Major League Baseball teams can use to maintain attendance rates during the next recession.
During the Great Recession of 2007-2009, popular media reported that tough financial times were strengthening marriages and decreasing the risk of divorce. Several recent studies using vital statistics have found empirical evidence supporting this, labeling the effect the, “cost of divorce perspective.” Using new data on marital history provided by the American Community Survey and census-tract level unemployment, this study further analyzes the relationship between recessions and an individual’s decision to divorce. Results show that unemployment rates do not influence divorce risks, regardless of differences in gender. Moreover, evidence for a hybrid perspective on divorce is found, suggesting that individuals postpone divorce during recessions, but then end their marriages when the health of the economy improves.
This paper will examine the relationship that unemployment benefit expenditure and unemployment rates have on crime rates. The study will focus on Spain, but will include analysis of five other European Union member states in the years 1993 to 2012. In times of unemployment and poor economic health, more individuals choose to perform criminal acts to make ends meet. We will use data from the European Commission and OECD databanks to create a reduced-form OLS model that is controlled for time. We found that this reduced-form is insufficient for analyzing the complex behavioral economics that go into the financial motivations for committing a crime. Our research did present opportunities and guidelines for further research to be done focusing on Spain’s metropolitan districts.