Tourism is the number one industry in the world. In developing countries there is inherent exploitation of environments, cultures and economies through the tourism industry. Although shifting to a conventional and unsustainable tourism-based economy will often help develop a country, the negative externalities outweigh the economic gain. As the world is becoming ever-more aware of the need for sustainability, ecotourism is leading the way as the most sustainable travel choice. It is up to the tourist, the host, and world organizations like the International Ecotourism Society (TIES) to transform the travel industry and turn ecotourism into the main form of tourism.
The Olympic Games garner worldwide attention. This mega sporting event requires examination in terms of economic impact. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of hosting the Olympic Games through GDP, employment, and tourism. To assess the economic impact, host nations will not only be analyzed in and of itself, but will also be compared to runner-up nations in the bidding process. Though runner-up nations tend to economically benefit more often than the host nation per Olympiad, host nations are found to benefit intrinsically.
The purpose of this study is to explore the factors that affect theme park attendance. Some of these factors are theme park specific, such as the type of attractions offered. Other factors are geographic and locational, such as the population of the city and the weather. Through the study of 86 theme parks around the world, this paper presents a model that estimates the changes in attendance caused by a variety of factors.
This study attempts to determine whether changes in income, travel costs, and the cost of living in a foreign country affects travelers’ decisions to migrate to New Zealand. In this study, three different groups of travelers are analyzed, which are students, tourists, and visitors. I hypothesize that increases in travel costs will have a negative effect on all three types of traveler intensities, increases in income will have positive effects on the travel intensities of all three traveler types, and prices abroad relative to one’s origin will have a more significant effect on students than tourists, but no significant effect on visitors. To test these hypotheses, I will use a double log equation run with a fixed effects model to estimate the elasticities of income, travel costs, and prices abroad in regards to travel intensities of the three chosen traveler types, all of whom are traveling to New Zealand from 68 selected countries from around the world in the 2005-2014 time horizon. This study estimates that an increase in a tourist’s income by one percent will increase tourist travel intensity to New Zealand by 0.97 percent, and when there is an increase in the buying power of a tourist’s currency in New Zealand, tourist travel intensity is also estimated to increase. The study found no significant results for students and visitors.
This study uses the Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) framework to investigate the relationship between tourism and political violence in Nepal in the presence of a structural break. Using monthly time series data from January 1991 to December 2012, we find results that suggest the existence of negative short run and long run relationships between the two variables. The results of a dynamic ordinary least squares (DOLS) model estimation suggests that our results are robust to differences in model specification. A Toda-Yamomoto Granger Causality analysis suggests that political violence Granger-causes tourism in Nepal. The stability of the long run estimates is tested using CUSUM and CUSUMSQ tests.
As the Internet becomes an increasingly popular medium in which to conduct business, strategists have argued over the best generic strategy for online firms, and one topic that has remained controversial is first-mover advantage theory. This thesis looks at first-mover advantage and the electronic commerce industry. In particular, it will study the effects of pioneering status on consumer cognition (specifically retrieval, recall, and preference) in the online travel-booking industry. By replicating the methods and analysis of a previous survey-based approach study conducted by Alpert and Kamins (“An Empirical Investigation of Consumer Memory, Attitude, and Perceptions Toward Pioneer and Follower Brands”), this thesis was able to analyze how a convenience sampling of Colorado College students think about the pioneer brand in the online travel-booking industry. A close analysis of the survey results rejects the three initial hypotheses that favor the pioneer.
African elephant populations have been plummeting over the past few decades due to increased poaching and demand for ivory. This thesis investigates the influence that poverty and tourism have on the level of African elephant poaching, as well as the influence that poverty and elephant poaching have on the level of tourism in Africa. Through the use of an ordinary least squares regression, poaching, tourism and socioeconomic data between the years 2002 and 2012 for 27 African countries are used to examine these relationships. Results have shown that poverty and elephant poaching have a positive relationship; poverty and tourism have a negative relationship; and elephant poaching and tourism have a negative relationship.