Judy Sondermann (CC class of 1981) is the daughter of the late Colorado College Professor Fred A. Sondermann. Judy graduated with a B.A. in psychology, and a Certificate of Education. She played women's varsity soccer for Colorado College for four years. In 1981, she was selected for a women's college soccer team that traveled to Europe for training and competition. In the 1981-82 season, Judy was an assistant coach of Colorado College's women's soccer team. She discusses growing up at Colorado College, campus life as a student, athletics, soccer, and her father, Fred Sondermann.
Professional football teams that once chose to list their stock in the exchange markets have started to delist in the last few years. This study presents a modified version of Altman’s 1968 bankruptcy model and applies multivariate discriminant analysis to predict which financial and socioeconomic factors affect a team’s decision to delist from a stock market. Our non-metric dependent variable is listed/delisted teams, while our independent variables include a number of Altman’s financial ratios, GDP per capita, winning percentage, and two measures specific to soccer franchises–broadcasting and sponsorship revenues. Data are obtained for a total of 37 European teams, out of which 21 remained listed, while 16 were delisted at the time this study was written. Results suggest that the two main variables affecting a delisting decision are broadcasting revenues and working capital. Wealthier football teams that remain listed could benefit from our results by focusing on maintaining a positive working capital, while for smaller teams it might be wise to find alternative revenue sources other than TV revenues.
Favoring someone based on his or her nationality or race is wrong. It doesn’t matter whether it occurs in an office setting or in a sporting context. This paper looks at the effect that nationality has on the salary of MLS players in the 2013, 2014, and 2015 MLS seasons to examine nationality-based discrimination inside the MLS. The results indicate that European and African nationalities have a significant positive explanatory power in analyzing MLS wage, while Caribbean and South American nationalities were found to have a significantly negative explanatory power in analyzing MLS wage.
While many previous economic studies focus on determining the role various socio-economic factors on men’s international soccer performance, very few studies performed on women’s soccer exist. A gross discrepancy between the top ranked men’s and women’s international soccer teams compels this study, which includes measures of gender equality as a hypothesized deterministic factor for women’s international soccer rankings. The hypothesis here suggests that where women are afforded more opportunities in society, they will experience success in other realms of life as well. An OLS regression using FIFA/Coca Cola women’s rankings as the dependent variable yielded that while the utilized proxies of gender equality are not related to soccer performance, the average IQ of a country and the number of casual soccer players a country claims serve as highly predictive factors when determining which countries will field successful women’s international soccer teams. Whether or not a country has a communist government and the number of years a country’s team has been affiliated with FIFA were also found to have significant value when predicting the FIFA rankings.
The paper presented offers insight into a decade of English Premier League soccer. Controlling for exogenous format and rule changes, the hypothesis states that on-field, match variables have decreased in significance relative to off-field, financial variables in relation to the competitive behavior of clubs. The timeline of the paper spans ten seasons from 2003 to 2013. Using fixed effects, OLS models, the paper discovers the changes in behavior of the on and off-field variables relative to total points. The model is applied to the context of the league itself and attempts to explain the change in competitive behavior and competitive advantage in the English Premier League. KEYWORDS: Competitive Balance, Soccer, Champions League, English Premier League, OLS, Fixed Effects Model
This paper examines whether success – defined as a win (3 points), tie (1 point) or loss (0 points) - is affected by a passing rating which is compiled through network theory analysis of passing in the sport of soccer. The proposed measurement builds a weighted network that accounts for the total number of teammates passed to, and the number of passes to those unique players. The model is run on 2012 Major League Soccer (MLS) season using Opta F24 event data. The Multinomial Probit Model suggests that the rating has no significant correlation with success.
This study examines the effect of socioeconomic factors on winning games at the FIFA World Cup. This study identifies various macroeconomic, geographic, and soccer-specific characteristics that impact World Cup success. Determinants of World Cup success were largely identified through examination of performances measured at the Olympics and international soccer games. Ordinary Least Squares regression method is used to determine the significance of these factors for the countries that participated in the 1994-2010 World Cup tournaments. The results of this estimation method indicate that hosting, international rank, as well as regional origins and cultural traditions significantly impact wins. A country's wealth and population are not significant factors in winning games at the World Cup.
Many studies have investigated which factors contribute to attendance in sports; however, many have not performed such analysis for the sport of football. This article, therefore, investigates the determinants of attendance in English football over eleven seasons, from 2002-2003 to 2012-2013 using a panel estimation method. Various seasonal statistics, economic factors, and demographic factors are used as determinants in the analysis. The results indicate that the league a team plays in, transfer expenditure, and team performance have a positive effect on attendance. On the other hand, we find that city population has a negative effect on attendance. These results provide suggestions for how club owner’s can implement policies in order to increase attendance, consequently increasing revenue and profits.
This paper uses data from Major League Soccer’s regular season between 2012 and 2016 to study the impact of cultural diversity on team performance. I found that there is no proof that more diverse teams outperform less diverse ones or vice versa. However, I did find that more valuable teams, teams that spend a relatively large amount of the league’s total spend on salary, outperform less valuable ones. All else equal, a one percent increase in a team’s value is associated with a 0.94 increase in its end of season goal differential. An Ordinary Least Squares Regression (OLS) reinforces these findings. Because goal difference totals often mirror league standings, teams that spend more money could potentially change their final position in the conference at the end of the season. The results of this study have important implications for debates regarding money’s ability to influence performance not only in more financially equitable soccer leagues, but also in leagues where there is greater financial inequality between teams.