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  • Thumbnail for Bibi ki Maqbara, entrance sign
    Bibi ki Maqbara, entrance sign

    At the entrance to the shrine, visitors are instructed to remove their shoes and sandals (chapples). The sign in English and Hindi indicates that while you are expected to remove your footwear at this shrine, the shrine takes no responsibility for their care. In other words, perhaps you might want to pay the man at the entrance to watch them for you. It's interesting that the sign is only in English and Hindi, not in Urdu or Marathi.

  • Thumbnail for Zar Zari Zar Baksh Dargah, ritual of thanksgiving for child, older brother with infant
    Zar Zari Zar Baksh Dargah, ritual of thanksgiving for child, older brother with infant

    Small older brother has accompanied his family for this ritual celebrating the birth and health of his siblings and cousins. [For description of the ritual, see cbind0043.]

  • Thumbnail for Aurangzeb Mosque main clock
    Aurangzeb Mosque main clock

    Every mosque prominently displays a clock. The clock reminds Muslims of the injunction to pray five times daily. This colorfully painted and decorated clock is located on a pillar just in front of the mehrab and notes the subsequent prayer time.

  • Thumbnail for Khuldabad, tomb of saint, Jalal al-Din or Ganj-i-ravan
    Khuldabad, tomb of saint, Jalal al-Din or Ganj-i-ravan

    In Khuldabad, a town of many Sufi tombs and dargahs (shrines), the shrine of Jala al-Din, also known by his epithet Ganj-i-Ravan (Flowing Treasure), is a pilgrimage site favored for its miraculous powers. In the courtyard of the dargah is a tree said to have been planted in a miraculous way by the saint. Just outside the dargah is a spring-fed pond known as the Fairies' Tank (pariyon ka talab) which is understood to have healing properties.

  • Thumbnail for Zar Zari Zar Baksh Dargah, cloth seller
    Zar Zari Zar Baksh Dargah, cloth seller

    Just outside the entrance to the dargah, a man sells bright colored cloths some with gold-embroidered prayers Pilgrims have these cloths blessed inside the dargah and then save them to be used as funeral shrouds.

  • Thumbnail for Qawwali at the Dargah, evening performance
    Qawwali at the Dargah, evening performance

    The senior singer, Taj Muhammad, prepares for an evening qawwali in the inner courtyard of the dargah. Men of the town join him to sing or to listen to the captivating melodies. In Khuldabad, qawwali performance is an almost exclusively male affair. Men sing and play the instruments, while others listen and offer money to the musicians. Small boys hang around the dargah during qawwalis, as well as at other times, to run errands or sit quietly and listen. Here, several foreign females also sit in the audience.

  • Thumbnail for Zar Zari Zar Baksh tomb entrance
    Zar Zari Zar Baksh tomb entrance

    The doorway opens into a closed circular room housing a sarcophagus to represent the tomb of the saint, Zar Zari Zar Baksh. A domed roof covers this tomb shrine. Men enter this room and pray next to the tomb while women pray at the doorway. Both men and women are touched with a peacock feather on each shoulder as a symbol of the blessings received by all who pray at this site.

  • Thumbnail for Qawwali singer, Taj Muhammad
    Qawwali singer, Taj Muhammad

    Taj Muammad, Khuldabad's senior qawwali singer in January 2003, left Khuldabad as a young teen to study and live with a respected qawwali teacher in Bombay. His Khuldabadi family had recognized his gift as he sang with the local qawwali performers as a boy, and so supported his move to Bombay to learn with a master, an ustad. In his sixties, Taj Muhammad was still singing the somber and spirited melodies in a clear voice, praising God, the Prophet, and early Sufi saints.

  • Thumbnail for Zar Zari Zar Baksh Dargah, ritual of thanksgiving for child, weighing baskets for ritual
    Zar Zari Zar Baksh Dargah, ritual of thanksgiving for child, weighing baskets for ritual

    These two metal baskets used for the child weighing ritual are connected by a thick rope positioned over the strong limb of a tree in the courtyard of the dargah. [For description of the ritual, see cbind0043.]

  • Thumbnail for Khuldabad, Aurangzeb Mosque minarets
    Khuldabad, Aurangzeb Mosque minarets

    The speakers visible in this photo are used to announce the call to prayer.

  • Thumbnail for Aurangzeb Mosque, sign
    Aurangzeb Mosque, sign

    Sign in English and Hindi for the Tomb of the last Mughal Emperor, Aurangzeb. Behind this sign is a small sign explaining that anyone who vandalizes this monument will be subject to imprisonment of up to three months, a fine of up to 5000 rupees [more than $100], or both.

  • Thumbnail for Aurangzeb Mosque, Qur'anic inscription
    Aurangzeb Mosque, Qur'anic inscription

    Passages from the Qur'an are used as decorations and as reminders of the presence of God in homes and in public places, as well as in mosques.

  • Thumbnail for Khuldabad Jalal al-Din Dargah, black yoni
    Khuldabad Jalal al-Din Dargah, black yoni

    In the courtyard of the dargah is this black stone yoni with a hole where a linga would have been attached. According to local legend, this dargah was erected on land that had previousy supported a Hindu Temple. The Muslim builders were able to remove the linga but the yoni base was too heavy and too firmly entrenched in the ground to move. The dargah was built and this Hindu symbol of female divine energy remains in the courtyard as a reminder of past history.

  • Thumbnail for Qawwali, impromptu afternoon performance
    Qawwali, impromptu afternoon performance

    A senior qawwali singer is joined by other men to sing qawwals in praise of God, the Prophet, and Sufi saints. This was an impromptu qawwali performed with men who happened to be at the dargah.

  • Thumbnail for Khuldabad, Sona Bai's well, banyan tree
    Khuldabad, Sona Bai's well, banyan tree

    Magnificent banyan tree near Sona Bai's well.

  • Thumbnail for Aurangzeb Mosque and Tomb, sign
    Aurangzeb Mosque and Tomb, sign

    This sign in the courtyard of the mosque complex explains that this area contains the Shrine of the saint, Zainuddin, and the tomb of the son of Aurangzeb, Azamshah. The sign is written in English, Hindi, and Urdu.

  • Thumbnail for Large porcelain dish
    Large porcelain dish

    The decoration on this blue and white charger was inspired by Islamic ceramics of the 16th and 17th centuries and influenced the decorative patterns used on 18th century Dutch Delft wares. 14 7/8 inches wide; 2.25 inches high.

  • Thumbnail for Zar Zari Zar Baksh Dargah, ritual of thanksgiving for child, child balanced with sweetbreads
    Zar Zari Zar Baksh Dargah, ritual of thanksgiving for child, child balanced with sweetbreads

    The child dressed in a beautiful peach dress and blue scarf sits patiently as her weight balances the sweetbreads on the other side, determining the contribution of her familiy to the community. [See cbind0043 for description of this Thanksgiving Ritual.]

  • Thumbnail for Khuldabad, Aurangzeb Mosque, Mehrab
    Khuldabad, Aurangzeb Mosque, Mehrab

    The niche in the wall, the mehrab, is placed in the direction of Mecca so that all facing the mehrab for prayer will also be facing Mecca. On the wall are the names Allah and Muhammad representing the creedal statement, the Shahada: There exists only one God and Muhammad is his messenger. Also, on the wall is the clock, a reminder of the 5 daily prayer times.

  • Thumbnail for Aurangzeb Mosque, ritual ablutions before prayer
    Aurangzeb Mosque, ritual ablutions before prayer

    Before praying, all Muslim worshippers must purify themselves by performing ritual ablutions. Mosques provide fountains or individual water spigots so that each person can carry out this ritual cleansing.

  • Thumbnail for Aurangzeb Mosque perfume kiosk
    Aurangzeb Mosque perfume kiosk

    Outside many mosques in India, small shops sell perfumes and small ornaments. Before prayer, all must perform ritual ablutions to purify oneself. From an early period, perfumes have been associated with the idea of purification.

  • Thumbnail for Zar Zari Zar Baksh Dargah, bangles as symbols of pilgrims' petitions
    Zar Zari Zar Baksh Dargah, bangles as symbols of pilgrims' petitions

    At the Tomb Shrine of the mother of Zar Zari Zar Baksh, women tie glass bangles over the door lintel into the shrine room as symbols of their petitions.

  • Thumbnail for Zar Zari Zar Baksh Dargah prayer clock
    Zar Zari Zar Baksh Dargah prayer clock

    A reminder of the Quranic injunction to pray five times a day. At 4:45 p.m., the next prayer time is posted for 19:00. This prayer, the Maghrib, is the fourth of the day to be performed just after sunset.

  • Thumbnail for Zar Zari Zar Baksh, mother's tomb shrine
    Zar Zari Zar Baksh, mother's tomb shrine

    Within a few yards of the tomb shrine of Zar Zari Zar Baksh lies the tomb shrine of his mother, also understood to intercede with God on the behalf of pilgrims. Women pilgrims often pray to her to help them conceive a child.

  • Thumbnail for Khuldabad Jalal al-Din Dargah Masjid plaque
    Khuldabad Jalal al-Din Dargah Masjid plaque

    On the wall of the masjid, over the mehrab or niche designating the direction of prayer is this blue-green plaque with the shahada written in gold lettering: There is only one God and Muhammad is his prophet.