This paper investigates the determinants of the host city selection process for both the Summer and Winter Olympics. There are numerous factors that go into the selection process, which is conducted by the International Olympic Committee. Based on previous research, I am hypothesizing that there are countless factors that go into choosing the host city, and that those aspects that signify a country is strong economically will be significantly positive. My main question is to determine if there even are any significant variables when it comes to host city selection, or if it is a more biased and/or random process. The data set includes all countries that were candidates for the Summer and Winter Olympics since 1980. Effects are calculated using a probit regression model, with the binary dependent variable showing if the city was chosen or not chosen as the eventual host. Results show that very few variables are significant indicators of the probability that the city will be chosen, leading me to believe that there is not a set process of evaluation and that it changes from year to year based on external factors.
Scarcity of water resources necessitates an understanding of residential water pricing and demand, two factors certain to affect water usage in the coming years. This paper pursues a discussion of water pricing theory and previous studies on residential water demand. The culmination of the paper is an analysis of residential water demand in Colorado Springs, Colorado, a city reliant on water from the Colorado River Basin, a seriously stressed water system. A fixed-effect regression with Driscoll-Kraay standard errors is utilized to analyze a panel data set providing average monthly residential water consumption per cubic feet (CF), for forty water consumption zones over the ten-year period January 2000 to December 2009. The study analyzes a number of exogenous variables including average education level to determine the influence of less obvious factors on residential water consumption. Main findings indicate increases in most measures of wealth corresponded positively with residential consumption, but not all. Above average education levels of certain age groups and household value are suggested to have negative relationships with water consumption, so that areas with above average education levels of 18-24 year olds are using less water. For the stressed Colorado River Basin these finding suggest increased investment in education, and full accounting for the price of water resources under block rate schedules will serve effective tools for water demand management.
This paper explores the relationship between outdoor activities and happiness. It is hypothesized that participation in outdoor activities increases happiness. A cross-section of data from the General Social Survey is used. After estimating the ordered logit regression on the Outdoor Activities frequency variable against General Happiness, Outdoor Activities is positive and statistically significant. Marginal effects and odds ratio tests confirm that when respondents participate in Camping, Hunting, and Playing Sports, there is a higher probability and greater odds that a participant will have the highest happiness level. When controls are added and other tests of robustness are run, the coefficient on Outdoor Activities remains the same and statistically significant.
Research pertaining to CEO performance recognizes that a CEO’s true quality and character are most conspicuous during tough times. Ever since the economic crisis of 2008 the economy has been sluggish at best. The condition of the economy at that time provides an optimal opportunity to conduct a performance evaluation of CEOs. They sit at the helm of corporations that dictate the productivity and prosperity of our country. Their performance has an indirect effect on the socioeconomic standing of everyone else in the economy. Therefore, it is important to identify the dynamics that enable the holder of such a powerful position to be successful. Using regression analysis of data collected via a quantitative analysis of CEOs’ letters to shareholders, this thesis examines determinants of CEO success.
This paper investigates the potential impact nearby unconventional gas wells may have on the value of single-family homes within Bradford County, Pennsylvania. A hedonic pricing model is utilized to determine if nearby unconventional shale wells impacted the prices of these properties from 2013 through 2014. Both OLS and single-log regression models were run using the number of active unconventional wells within five and ten kilometers as the exogenous variables of interest in addition to the characteristics of the properties. Prices of homes that had unconventional wells within ten kilometers did not seem to be affected, but when the distance was reduced to five kilometers, the value of properties declined by over four thousand dollars.
The use of celebrities to market brands is nothing new. In fact, companies have been using celebrities to advertise their brands since the 1600s. Although celebrity endorsements are ever increasing, is it still a viable marketing strategy for companies? This study attempts to examine the impacts a celebrity scandal can have on the change in brand value using regression analysis. This study includes professional athletes, movie stars, and musicians and their various endorsed brands in the sample. The findings of this study show that a celebrity scandal actually does not have an impact on the change in brand value. In fact, scandal was the least significant variable in the regression analysis. What this study did find was that celebrity net worth actually has a large and significant impact on the change in brand value.
Drawing from ecofeminist perspectives, this paper assesses the saliency of women not as victims of environmental degradation, but rather as potent agents of change. Situated within the context of increasing environmental damage and looming irreversible climate change, this study examines whether, and to what degree, women’s political empowerment impacts environmental sustainability. With particular emphasis on women’s status, ordinary least squares regressions models were used to investigate predictors of ecological footprint, environmental well-being and environmental performance cross-nationally. The results demonstrate that while affluence, measured in GDP per capita, is a strong predictor in every case, women’s political empowerment leads to better environmental outcomes only in environmental policy performance. This suggests that women’s political empowerment may be yet another modernisation factor which affects national environmental policies and outcomes, but cannot reduce the overall environmental impact beyond national borders. This study concludes by stating that despite of promising results, women’s status may still suffer from globalisation and other mediating world-system processes.
Over the years studies have been documented to test whatever interests the human eye. Studies have been done on anything from economic trends to sports. This brings us to the testing of all stars in the National Hockey League. People may ask, well why is this paper important? Over the years studies have been compiled in the other major sports testing to see if all stars affect team wins but none have been done regarding the all stars in the National Hockey League. An all star player is defined as a player in a particular sport who has been selected for the All-star game. The purpose of this paper is to come to a conclusion, through regression analysis, if all stars in the National Hockey League have an effect on their team’s wins.
This study seeks to determine which attributes of a film affect a measure of its rate of return when using data for both foreign and domestic box office sales. The data from a previous study by Brewer, Kelley and Jozefowicz is used, with the dependent variable adjusted to rate of return and revenue is adjusted to include foreign sales. A regression analysis is performed in order to determine the significant factors for this dependent variable. It is found that, contrary to studies using revenue as the dependent variable, budget has a negative effect on a film's rate of return. Along with this, star power is relatively meaningless, while critical review, film nominations and word of mouth appeal are each quite significant. The implications of this study suggest that Hollywood can increase its profitability by diversifying its portfolio to include a number of smaller budgeted projects as opposed to a select few blockbusters.
As the economy is in a decline, fewer people are willing to pay for luxuries such as vacations. Thus, the ski resort industry is suffering. This thesis reveals an opportunity m the growth of free skiing and a demand for more difficult terrain. In this paper, data is collected from nearly all Colorado ski resorts to form a regression model explaining resort success. Regression analysis is conducted to discover what aspects of a ski resort contribute to success. Primarily, skier visits from the 2008-2009 ski season are used as the dependent variable in the regression model to measure resort success. Additionally, hedonic pricing theory is applied to test lift ticket price as a dependent variable. The paper finds that resort size, and possibly terrain park features are related to resort success. The hedonic pricing regression finds that bowl skiing, and lack of crowds, increase consumer willingness to pay for expensive lift tickets.
According to recent ski industry research, skiing is, at best, stagnant. At worst, it is doomed for a collapse in the next few decades because of its primary demographic, the baby boomers, will no longer be participating in the sport. Also, with the current economic crisis that we are facing, some ski areas have already felt major effects and are on the brink of failure. In this competitive market environment, ski destination success depends strongly on a thorough analysis of customer satisfaction. Ski area managers need to identify the drivers of customer satisfaction, measure satisfaction levels, and derive the right strategies to increase satisfaction. Many ski resorts monitor customer satisfaction regularly using on-mountain surveys. Using regression analysis from surveys conducted by the National Ski Area Association for the 2008/2009 ski season, this thesis will investigate the demographic determinants associated with skier satisfaction.