This thesis presents a history of instances of popular Irish rebellion against and co-optation of the Catholic Church along with examples of Catholic influence in “secular” society to argue for a more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between the Republic of Ireland and the Catholic Church. The international shock following the 2015 and 2018 referenda to legalize same-sex marriage and repeal the constitutional ban on abortion, respectively, was in part a product of a tradition of scholastic discourse which relies on mass attendance and clerical participation data to draw conclusions about the state of Catholicism in Ireland. This method erases the tradition of resistance to Catholic Church mandate seen throughout Irish history and collapses allegiance to Catholicism into the act of active participation in the Church. This thesis argues for a distinction between the Church hierarchy’s mandate and allegiance to Catholicism and contextualizes recent progressive movements in an often-ignored history of activism.
Marijuana legislation in the United States dates back to the early twentieth century. History has shown how policymakers have twisted the creed of marijuana to something dangerous and deadly. Yet, recent years have shown how individual states have been able to reduce the stigma surrounding this drug. Proposition 19 was defeated in California during November of 2010. This proposition would have legalized the consumption, production, and possession of marijuana in California for adults 21 years of age and older. This thesis illustrates the fiscal benefits that might be realized if marijuana were legalized, regulated, and taxed. While other results have recently been produced, this paper combines data, theory, and estimates from a number of renowned sources, to find the potential tax revenue that could be generated from legalization. The results are compiled with current budget deficit and revenue figures, to find the overarching fiscal impact. While others have offered different outcomes, the results indicate that legalization will only slightly improve the monetary situation in California.