This paper investigates the determinants of the host city selection process for both the Summer and Winter Olympics. There are numerous factors that go into the selection process, which is conducted by the International Olympic Committee. Based on previous research, I am hypothesizing that there are countless factors that go into choosing the host city, and that those aspects that signify a country is strong economically will be significantly positive. My main question is to determine if there even are any significant variables when it comes to host city selection, or if it is a more biased and/or random process. The data set includes all countries that were candidates for the Summer and Winter Olympics since 1980. Effects are calculated using a probit regression model, with the binary dependent variable showing if the city was chosen or not chosen as the eventual host. Results show that very few variables are significant indicators of the probability that the city will be chosen, leading me to believe that there is not a set process of evaluation and that it changes from year to year based on external factors.
The worldwide excitement generated by the Olympic Games needs to be examined in terms of economic impact. The Olympic Games is defined in economic terms by the Pre Olympic Period, the Olympic Year, and the Olympic Legacy Period. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of hosting the Olympics on a nation’s employment rates. The hypothesis is that hosting the Olympics improves employment in the Pre Olympic Period and Olympic Year Period but likely has minimal effect during the Olympic Legacy Period. Contrary to the hypothesis the results suggest that hosting the Olympics has no significant effect on employment as a percentage of the population in an Olympic host nation. However, the trend in all three Olympic Periods was favorable for improved national employment.
This research was spurred by the Olympic Training Center’s interest in gathering data to assess the current return on investment for track and field athletes. We predict that athletes who attend the Olympic Training Center should have improved performance in competitions that occur after they have attended the training program. In order to assess these results we have run an endogenous treatment effects model, where we select athletes who have attended the residence program at the Olympic Training Center as participants of the treatment. The Olympic Training Center spends millions of dollars each year to train these athletes, and this study will conclude whether those millions are really worth spending in terms of athletic success.
The Olympic Games garner worldwide attention. This mega sporting event requires examination in terms of economic impact. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of hosting the Olympic Games through GDP, employment, and tourism. To assess the economic impact, host nations will not only be analyzed in and of itself, but will also be compared to runner-up nations in the bidding process. Though runner-up nations tend to economically benefit more often than the host nation per Olympiad, host nations are found to benefit intrinsically.
Research on participation and medal winning at the Olympics has historically focused on economic indicators such as GDP or population size. The use socioeconomic indicators such gender equality to study female success at the Olympics is a recent development in the field of Olympic research. This paper expands on this research and looks at the effects of barriers to entry such as equipment costs and facility costs on the success of women of various nations at the Olympics. The paper tests the hypothesis that sports with the highest barriers to entry will have lower participation and medal-winning rates at the Olympics for women. The findings show that as barriers to entry increase the proportion of female athletes in a given sport, for a given country, in a given year, decreases. This can also be seen to a lesser extent in the proportion of medals won by female athletes. This indicates that female athletes are not getting the same training and competition opportunities as their male counterparts. The hope with this research is that it will provide a framework and direction for the IOC and other stakeholders in the years following the conclusion of the IOC’s flagship program – Agenda 2020. It also seeks to offer a more complete understanding of the inequalities that women face in sport with the hopes of increasing female participation in sports.