The present essay examines the traffic in magical goods and services between Maltese prostitutes and Muslim slaves in seventeenth-century Malta, as it is represented in the Archives of the Inquisition in Malta. Past analyses of these archives have focused on these interactions as elements of superstition and folk religion in early modern Malta. This essay asserts that the magical trade provided a form of common engagement between slaves and prostitutes as subaltern groups. In my analysis, I use close readings of denunciations before the Maltese Inquisition and historical examples from other scholarship. This essay will be useful to those interested in Maltese history, Christian and Muslim encounters, and the problems of universalism in post-colonial discourse.
Greek nationalism emerging out of the Enlightenment stressed the primordial belief that Modern Greeks are the descendents of the Ancient Greeks. This type of nationalism was exclusionary and repressive towards foreigners, yet is pervasive in contemporary Greek immigration policy. Greek immigration is incredibly important today because in 2010 alone, 90 percent of detected illegal immigrants in the European Union entered through Greece, a large percentage of these being Muslim immigrants. In this paper I contend that political rights must be granted to Muslim immigrants that call Greece their home, for ethnocultural differences should not preclude political, economic or social integration. Individual characteristics of the members of the community should not determine whether they are worthy of political rights or not. Terms for immigrants should rather be defined in political and institutional terms rather than in ethnic and cultural; only though recognizing the ability for Muslims to participate in the political and economic life of the Greek state can peaceful coexistence materialize. This paper, thus, is particularly significant because it exposes the Greek path dependency on a flawed immigration policy and suggests ways for reconciling national identity in an era of mass migration.
This thesis explores the Chinese Muslim intellectual movement that lasted from roughly 1630-1730 CE and how those in the movement constructed an Islamic school of Confucian thought and a Chinese Muslim intellectual Identity. In the process, Chinese Muslim intellectuals, including the scholar Liu Zhi, made the case that the Prophet Muhammad was a Confucian sage and his teachings belonged in the Confucian canon. This thesis also explores the relationship between Chinese Muslims and the Qing state in an effort to explain why their teachings did not spread to the rest of Chinese society.