During the past forty years, China has experienced possibly the largest amount of internal population migration in history where one-quarter of the population migrated from either village to cities or small cities to big cities. While most of the people chose to retain their double-residential status both in the rural and urban areas, there is still a large number of people hoping that they could settle in the cities and be incorporated as part of China’s urbanization process, but the Chinese Hukou system(Household registration) hinders a lot of the migrants from doing so. There have been constant reforms carried out with respect to the Hukou system and the focus of this paper draws on the policy implications from the Hukou reform and whether the migration pattern has changed following the Hukou reform.
Colorado is one of the fastest growing states by both population size and median housing price. Literature has focused primarily on the determinants of migration and housing prices, however there is an absence of literature that addresses them simultaneously. The primary contribution of this study is to fill some of this gap in methodological approach. An additional contribution of this literature is the provision of analysis of migration/housing dynamics at the county level. We form and estimate via MLE a structural equation model consisting of functional forms for in-migration, out-migration and median housing price and find evidence of a simultaneous relationship, suggesting that earlier findings which examined these effects independently may be biased. Interestingly, we find that an increase in in-migration functions to lower housing prices while an increase in out-migration functions to raise prices. This is not consistent with our expectations or with most of the literature. We also find that a rise in housing prices functions to increase in-migration and decrease out-migration, which is more consistent with our predictions.
This study attempts to determine whether changes in income, travel costs, and the cost of living in a foreign country affects travelers’ decisions to migrate to New Zealand. In this study, three different groups of travelers are analyzed, which are students, tourists, and visitors. I hypothesize that increases in travel costs will have a negative effect on all three types of traveler intensities, increases in income will have positive effects on the travel intensities of all three traveler types, and prices abroad relative to one’s origin will have a more significant effect on students than tourists, but no significant effect on visitors. To test these hypotheses, I will use a double log equation run with a fixed effects model to estimate the elasticities of income, travel costs, and prices abroad in regards to travel intensities of the three chosen traveler types, all of whom are traveling to New Zealand from 68 selected countries from around the world in the 2005-2014 time horizon. This study estimates that an increase in a tourist’s income by one percent will increase tourist travel intensity to New Zealand by 0.97 percent, and when there is an increase in the buying power of a tourist’s currency in New Zealand, tourist travel intensity is also estimated to increase. The study found no significant results for students and visitors.