Researchers commonly use an individualistic approach to understand mental health, focusing purely on the biological determinants influencing outcomes. This paper looks beyond biology and chemistry and identifies the social determinants responsible for mental health outcomes. This study takes a quantitative approach, using multiple regressions to identify and compare the significance of various social factors in accounting for mental health experiences. Results show that age, race, gender, social class, and social capital are important predictors of mental health. By focusing on the social conditions that shape health experiences, this paper hopes to show how studying mental health using a sociological standpoint can help address some of the inequities and fundamental causes of poor mental health.
The best interests of companies are served by ensuring that employees are satisfied in their jobs. This thesis examines the relationship between personality and job satisfaction, and how motivation affects that model. Gender is also a component to this study, which observes the impact gender has on personality. Both quantitative and qualitative data was collected from companies operating across industries, and used for analysis. This study strives to reveal strategies on how best to motivate employees and increase levels of job satisfaction in the workplace.
Existing analyses of gender relations in youth marijuana subcultures have consistently shown these social fields to be economically, socially, and culturally male-dominated. Despite this disparity and the questions it raises about the gendered investments and negotiations of woman who tap into this subculture, scholars have yet to employ case-specific, qualitative methods to investigate the subjective experiences of female marijuana users. Building on contemporary feminist integrations of gender into Pierre Bourdieu’s theories of social reproduction, this thesis uses the hybrid concepts of gendered field, gendered capital, and gendered habitus to perceive a typology of female marijuana users at Colorado College from 17 purposively sampled interviews. I posit that of the four observable types – guest moochers, honorary den bros, token stoner chicks, and independent floaters – two exhibit distinct forms of gender reflexivity, a self-consciousness of gender investments, negotiations, and constraints as components of a socially constructed game rather than as biological imperatives. These two forms of gender reflexivity – which I call tactical resignation and emergent reflexivity – raise further questions about the capacity for inquiry and discourse to induce reflexivity and the experience of marginalized gender identities in other social fields.
The social movement to end violence in the home has always been characterized by discursive struggles, both within the movement and in its engagement with wider society. This study examines how movement discourse is transformed and rationalized at the individual level, presenting a case study of one domestic violence advocacy agency located in a politically conservative community. In-depth interviews were conducted with 17 employees and volunteers of the organization, including three former employees. The study found a central discursive struggle within the organization surrounding the use of gendered language, reflecting tensions between newer and older members of the movement. A new discourse of “inclusivity” is becoming prominent in the organization, and its complexities suggest that de-gendering language may be a much more nuanced discursive shift than researchers of the movement have previously stated. In somewhat of a contradiction, proponents of inclusivity simultaneously see gender-neutral language as fitting into the conservative political landscape, yet also as progressively challenging this landscape by allying with the LGBT community. As gender-neutral comes to be seen as the “new progressive” and older advocates feel increasingly unable to express their concerns, the movement must examine the possibilities and consequences of its shifting discourse for social change.
Bullying among school-aged children has received notoriety in the media as of late, especially following highly publicized incidents in which victims have killed themselves or others as a result of being bullied. The following study analyzed data from the 2005-2006 Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey, a national survey of students, in order to determine the socio-demographic factors predictive of bullying behaviors. A dichotomous bully variable was derived from the data set and used in an initial logistic regression with a set of independent variables representing student race/ethnicity, gender, family SES, family structure, and parental engagement. Initial results demonstrated the significance of parental attachment above all other independent variables, in addition to gender and family SES. OLS regressions were then run in order to determine which independent variables affected parent engagement. Results indicated that both mothers and fathers, especially those from racial/ethnic minority backgrounds, were significantly less engaged with their children than their white counterparts, particularly racial/ethnic minority fathers being significantly less engaged with their daughters. These results point to a crisis of masculinity as well as greater structural inequality that prevents minority parents from being more engaged with their children.
This study utilizes shelter intake survey data from TESSA, a domestic violence resource agency in Colorado Springs, Colorado, to analyze the relationships between victim demographics and experiences with various forms of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV). This study also addresses Michael Johnson’s Intimate Terrorism and Situational Couple Violence typologies and analyses the relationship between gender and control among IPV victims and perpetrators. Finally, this thesis considers the question of cumulative abuse as an indicator of abuse severity. Findings suggest that when the role of controlling behavior is considered, both gender-symmetrical and gender-asymmetrical forms of abuse can be identified in one sample. Specifically, highly controlling behaviors are more often perpetrated by males against female victims, but more event-specific and less controlling behaviors are perpetrated and experienced by males and females at roughly the same rates. Finally, findings suggest that cumulative abuse may be a proxy for control in predicting abuse severity.
Using the subcultural framework from the Center for Contemporary Cultural Studies (CCCS) and Marxist definitions of class this study seeks to better understand upper class youth subcultures. It argues that through identity tied to the parent culture upper class youth form subcultures of symbolic resistance around relationships both romantic and familial. This study uses quantitative analysis of a survey taken at Colorado College. Gender was statistically significant when determining respondents feelings and actions around relationships. Young women were attempting to resist the dominant discourse while young men were complicit, proving gender as a currently relevant subculture. Overall, class was not statistically significant. The analysis draws on Muggleton’s (2000) theory of neo-tribalism and hypothesis that class is no longer relevant to post modern youth. In the end, participating in youth subcultures gives the youth a sense of resistance, however, is a futile effort as subcultures are re-commodified by their dominant culture and rendered harmless without any real change to the structures of power.
This paper investigates income transmission dynamics in the United States by providing estimates for intergenerational mobility-- the degree to which a parent's socioeconomic status affects that of their dependents. Using data from the University of Minnesota's Integrated Public Use Microdata Series project (IPUMS), we calculate mobility estimates for Americans born in 1910 and 1980 using county level data. We find that across time, population subset, and model specification, there is strong evidence of spatial dependence in the data. This implies that traditional OLS model specifications used to estimate intergenerational mobility are not appropriate and instead, spatial econometric models should be employed. We also offer further support for an overall decrease in U.S. mobility over time and relatively lower levels of mobility for racial minorities compared to that of whites. Additionally, we discuss the discrepancies in intergenerational mobility across gender lines by examining the relatively unexplored role of women in income transmission relationships.
In 1890, a delegation of Mississippi legislators met to debate and eventually ratify a new state constitution. The new provisions for this constitution disenfranchised the state's large African American male population through the poll taxes, literacy qualifications, and understanding clauses. Within the next decade most southern states followed Mississippi's lead and created new constitutions to disenfranchise their own black populations. In doing so Mississippi ushered in a new wave of leaglized racial discrimination and marginalization but the 1890 constitutional convention was the starting point for Mississippi's woman suffrage movement. The movement was a relatively brief but important instance of political organizing among both black and white Mississippian women. Issues of race and difference were nearly unavoidable in the woman suffrage movement and therefore reveal critical insights into Mississippi society and southern identity at the turn of the 20th century.
En este estudio, discutiré cómo La plaza del Diamante de Mercè Rodoreda representa una visión de la Guerra Civil española, incluyendo la pre- y posguerra, como un conflicto no militar ni político, sino de género. Para ello, este estudio se centra en el análisis de las relaciones abusivas contra la mujer, prestando especial atención a cómo la dicotomía masculina-femenina afecta a los personajes femeninos. Más aún, este proyecto analiza cómo esta dicotomía limita tanto a hombres como mujeres en los distintos contextos políticos y sociales que transcurren desde la Segunda República (1931-36), hasta la dictadura franquista (1939-75). En relación a estos contextos, y sin olvidar la Guerra Civil como punto de inflexión histórico entre estas dos etapas, este estudio analiza cómo los papeles de género vacilan dinámicamente entre la tradición conservadora—vinculada al régimen franquista—y la liberal—asociada al proyecto democrático de la Segunda República, superando toda concepción estática del género en la España del siglo XX.
This article is a content analysis of best-selling teen sex education and relationship books. The purpose of this study was to examine alternative resources for sex and relationship education. I specifically look at how gender, virginity and abstinence are constructed in these books and how they are similar or different to the information and lessons in sex education classes. Furthermore, I examine how religion is an important component for discussion of relationships and sex. I argue that similar to public sex education courses these books enforce gender stereotypes and teach teens and young adults that abstinence is the only healthy form of sexuality.