In the 19th century, China encountered the first group of European colonialists and other foreigners. Nationalism, including views on different races, started to form. In the 20th century, ideas of racial categories and how Chinese people belong to the more superior "Yellow race" continued to develop and triggered national pride and rebellion against colonialists. During the Mao-era, nationalism was temporarily replaced with communism, but soon came back after Mao died in 1976. In the 1980s when China opened its market, people of the world, especially of the developing countries, were driven to China for its massive economic opportunities. As a result, Chinese people started to practice ideas of nationalism in their daily interactions with foreigners. This study took an ethnographic approach in order to examine the practice of nationalism in daily life among Chinese residents in Guangzhou, which has the largest African population throughout the country. The study included an explicit review of the historical development of China’s nationalism, along with a one-month ethnographic field research project that utilized interviews with 22 Chinese and 14 Africans in areas with higher concentration of Africans in Guangzhou. The results show that racism against Africans is commonly expressed among the Chinese participants. I found that their rationale of anti-African racism mostly originates from the structure of China’s nationalism that has been building since the 19th century.
This project is an analysis of local perspectives surrounding landscape and the management of natural resources in La Fortuna de San Carlos, Costa Rica. La Fortuna is a product of the conservation system and the increase of a tourism-based economy in Costa Rica, where socioeconomic development is increasing with an environmental conscience. Understanding the values and perceptions of the local population can help nearby Arenal National Park and other conservation institutions help the local community and better manage natural resources. This analysis looks for patterns in the interview responses of local participants about their personal practices with natural resources, perceptions of Arenal National Park, and changes in the community since the National Parks’ establishment. Quantitative survey and qualitative quotes suggest that local people perceive their values of natural resources as different from the objectives of Arenal National Park. The local community is instead unified by environmental and economic solidarity, creating a unique perspective on their surrounding natural landscape. The park and community need more collaboration to strengthen their relationship and to better natural resource management in the area.
The United States spends more money than any other high-income country on healthcare but has poorer outcomes in key healthcare measures. Integrating holistic anthropological theories and tools such as ethnography or evolutionary approaches can help medical practitioners deliver more effective care when faced with pressures and difficulties that occur when operating in the United States healthcare system. This incorporation of anthropology with biomedical care is specifically pertinent to chronic disease treatment. Here, I suggest anthropological theories and tools to improve the treatment of chronic illnesses. At the end of the theoretical discussion, I examine these issues with a focus on heart disease. Heart disease treatment in the United States is an example of a disease that could benefit greatly from the employment of an anthropological lens. I found that heart disease treatment in the United States does not cater treatment to individual cases or consider a variety of factors, even though heart disease commonly involves lifestyle factors.