Bullying is defined as a specific type of aggression, in which the behavior is intended to harm or disturb, the behavior occurs repeatedly, and there is an imbalance of power. This results in significant psychological damage in the victim, but also in the bully. Studies report the number of bullied children in middle schools as between 4% and 82%. The goals of our study are to understand how bullying behavior spreads in a population of adolescents, and to examine the impacts of the most common bullying intervention strategies. We propose a compartmental model parametrized using data on the prevalence of bullying. We compute the basic reproductive number R0 and perform numerical simulations and a sensitivity analysis of the model. An extension of the simple model includes the most common intervention strategies. Numerical simulations suggest that the Traditional Disciplinary Approach, although commonly implemented, is the least effective of the intervention strategies we study.
In recent years, there has been increasing interest in what drives the diffusion of knowledge. Recent studies have utilized epidemiological models to track the spread and growth of new academic disciplines. This study quantitatively examines 20 years of publication data in Economics, using modified epidemiological models to find the parameters under which these fields evolve. Looking at the quantitative results for 755 JEL codes, intriguing trends are found in the data. These quantitative outputs provide interesting conclusions not only about specific JEL’s, but also suggest that the characteristics of individuals in a given field can have a significant impact on the development of a field. Specifically, our results indicate that individuals who are charismatic and sociable can have a significant impact on furthering the growth of their discipline.