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  • Thumbnail for Thorp Collection 133, "Wolf" - J.T. Chahar.
    Thorp Collection 133, "Wolf" - J.T. Chahar.

    This image and all others identified as ecasia000072 through ecasia000278, are scans of images from the James Thorp Collection, Earlham College. An explanation and description of the collection and its origin are included in the description of image I.D. ecasia000072, "Altar of Heaven at night, Beijing," the first Thorp image presented in this project collection.

  • Thumbnail for Thorp Collection 193, Overflowed Lake, Mengtze, Yunnan.
    Thorp Collection 193, Overflowed Lake, Mengtze, Yunnan.

    This image and all others identified as ecasia000072 through ecasia000278, are scans of images from the James Thorp Collection, Earlham College. An explanation and description of the collection and its origin are included in the description of image I.D. ecasia000072, "Altar of Heaven at night, Beijing," the first Thorp image presented in this project collection.

  • Thumbnail for Thorp Collection 107,  Landslide, Gansu.
    Thorp Collection 107, Landslide, Gansu.

    Landslide, Gansu. This image and all others identified as ecasia000072 through ecasia000278, are scans of images from the James Thorp Collection, Earlham College. An explanatin and description of the collection and its origin are included in the description of image I.D. ecasia000072, "Altar of Heaven at night, Beijing," the first Thorp image presented in this project collection.

  • Thumbnail for Thorp Collection 162, Sm. Valley, Terraced Hills, Yichang.
    Thorp Collection 162, Sm. Valley, Terraced Hills, Yichang.

    This image and all others identified as ecasia000072 through ecasia000278, are scans of images from the James Thorp Collection, Earlham College. An explanation and description of the collection and its origin are included in the description of image I.D. ecasia000072, "Altar of Heaven at night, Beijing," the first Thorp image presented in this project collection.

  • Thumbnail for Landscapes of Japan, 07, Andesitic lava flow, from the 1719 eruption of Mt. Iwate.
    Landscapes of Japan, 07, Andesitic lava flow, from the 1719 eruption of Mt. Iwate.

    Andesitic lava flow, from the 1719 eruption of Mt. Iwate. -- This nearly two and one-half mile long lava flow was extruded through the east flank of Mt. Iwate. The surface is typical blocky, or aa, type of lava. Note that some vegetation has begun to grow on the lava surface. -- Other volcanic landforms near Mt. Iwate include bubbling hot springs, fumaroles and small geysers, especially in the Hachimantai Plateau to the north.

  • Thumbnail for Japan, 1951:  Vegetable plots within an urban setting
    Japan, 1951: Vegetable plots within an urban setting

    The dominant landscape in Japan is still rural. More than half of the arable land is given over to rice cultivation, and 90% of the laborers are farmers. But 84% of the land area is mountainous- which means that each acre of tillable land must support 3,400 persons. The comparable figure for China is 1,400 while for the U.S. it is only 270 persons. --This was the description to accompany this image as written by Arthur O. Rinden, the photographer. His description, which he referred to as a "script" was to accompany a slide show of the images for his family and others.

  • Thumbnail for Thorp Collection 046, effect of salt on cotton, E. Jiangsu
    Thorp Collection 046, effect of salt on cotton, E. Jiangsu

    Effect of salt on cotton, E. Jiangsu. This image and all others identified as ecasia000072 through ecasia000278, are scans of images from the James Thorp Collection, Earlham College. An explanation and description of the collection and its origin are included in the description of image I.D. ecasia000072, the first Thorp image presented in this project collection.

  • Thumbnail for Thorp Collection 192, Mts, W. of Puo-hi. Yunnan.
    Thorp Collection 192, Mts, W. of Puo-hi. Yunnan.

    This image and all others identified as ecasia000072 through ecasia000278, are scans of images from the James Thorp Collection, Earlham College. An explanation and description of the collection and its origin are included in the description of image I.D. ecasia000072, "Altar of Heaven at night, Beijing," the first Thorp image presented in this project collection.

  • Thumbnail for Landscapes of Japan, 01, Typical mountainous terrain west of the city of Morioka in northern Honshu.
    Landscapes of Japan, 01, Typical mountainous terrain west of the city of Morioka in northern Honshu.

    Typical mountainous terrain west of the city of Morioka in northern Honshu. -- Japan's location, along a boundary where earth crustal plates are converging, is largely responsible for the Japanese landscape. This convergence both pushes up the land surface producing mountains (at the same time causing earthquakes) and generates the volcanic activity characteristic of much of Japan. The result is that most of Japan consists of hills and mountains. The interplay between rapid uplift and rapid erosion by fast moving streams produces a landscape of steep slopes and narrow ridges and valleys. -- This is a typical mountainous landscape. Note the absence of any significant flat floodplain in the valley bottom.

  • Thumbnail for Thorp Collection 150, Tree and Bridge, Western Gaungxi Zhuangzu Autonomous Region.
    Thorp Collection 150, Tree and Bridge, Western Gaungxi Zhuangzu Autonomous Region.

    This image and all others identified as ecasia000072 through ecasia000278, are scans of images from the James Thorp Collection, Earlham College. An explanation and description of the collection and its origin are included in the description of image I.D. ecasia000072, "Altar of Heaven at night, Beijing," the first Thorp image presented in this project collection.

  • Thumbnail for Environmental Implications of Japan's Geology 11, Typical small, steep gradient stream, flood risk, Oirase valley.
    Environmental Implications of Japan's Geology 11, Typical small, steep gradient stream, flood risk, Oirase valley.

    Typical small, steep gradient stream, flood risk, Oirase valley. -- Small rivers, such as this, are particularly apt to flood during periods of heavy rain. The mountainous terrain and steep gradient, indicated by rapids and small waterfalls, assure that runoff will be rapid and the stream will rise quickly. Flooding is most likely in the early summer rainy period when stagnant weather fronts can produce 16 to 23 inches of rain in a 48 hour period, and during the fall typhoon season. Flooding can also occur as a result of rapid spring snow melt. Along with earthquakes and volcanic activity, flooding is a major natural hazard in Japan.

  • Thumbnail for Environmental Implications of Japan's Geology 12, Avalanche scar, Mt. Iwate.
    Environmental Implications of Japan's Geology 12, Avalanche scar, Mt. Iwate.

    Avalanche scar, Mt. Iwate. -- This steep slope on Mt. Iwate has several avalanche scars marked by patches of bare rock and the absence of trees. Avalanches are most common where deep snow falls on steep slopes. In Japan, moisture-laden air masses from the surrounding oceans can produce very heavy snowfall in the mountains. This, combined with frequent earthquakes which can act as triggers, mean that avalanches are another natural hazard the Japanese have to contend with.

  • Thumbnail for Thorp Collection 140, Bridge outside Wantsauhsien, Jiangxi.
    Thorp Collection 140, Bridge outside Wantsauhsien, Jiangxi.

    This image and all others identified as ecasia000072 through ecasia000278, are scans of images from the James Thorp Collection, Earlham College. An explanation and description of the collection and its origin are included in the description of image I.D. ecasia000072, "Altar of Heaven at night, Beijing," the first Thorp image presented in this project collection.

  • Thumbnail for Landscapes of Japan, 09, Alluvial flatlands, floodplain of Kitakami River, Hiraizumi.
    Landscapes of Japan, 09, Alluvial flatlands, floodplain of Kitakami River, Hiraizumi.

    Alluvial flatlands, floodplain of Kitakami River, Hiraizumi. -- Flat land is scarce in Japan and is mostly the result of stream action, though shoreline processes have produced some flat areas along the coast. Here, as its gradient, velocity and consequently its ability to transport sediment decreased, the Kitakami River has deposited sediment eroded from nearby mountain ranges. Most alluvial floodplains like this in Japan are small and linear in shape. Higher flat terraces paralleling the stream may be present if old floodplain surfaces have been uplifted and dissected by a rejuvenated and newly downcutting stream. -- Flat land is important in Japan because it is both the best agricultural land and the best site for cities and towns.

  • Thumbnail for Environmental Implications of Japan's Geology 03, Land use, urbanization, high population density, seismic risk, Tokyo.
    Environmental Implications of Japan's Geology 03, Land use, urbanization, high population density, seismic risk, Tokyo.

    Land use, urbanization, high population density, seismic risk, Tokyo. -- Because of its location above convergent crustal plate boundaries, Japan records about 5,000 earthquakes a year. On average, one to three earthquakes can be felt at any locality each month, and the historical frequency of major earthquake disasters in Japan is about one every ten years. Hazards associated with earthquakes include ground shaking, fire, landslides, and tsunami along the coastline. The great 1923 Tokyo earthquake left 143,000 people dead or missing, 103,000 injured, and about 250,000 homes damaged or destroyed. With a high population density, high rise buildings, increased population and commuters, the toll from the next Tokyo earthquake may be even greater.

  • Thumbnail for Landscapes of Japan, 05, Mountainous Kitakami Highlands, mostly Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, at Tanohata.
    Landscapes of Japan, 05, Mountainous Kitakami Highlands, mostly Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, at Tanohata.

    Mountainous Kitakami Highlands, mostly Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, at Tanohata. -- The Kitakami Highlands are typical of many of the mountains of Japan. The landscape is mostly slopes with narrow ridge tops and only a few small flat valley bottoms. One is visible in the right side of this scene. These mountains are not volcanic but rather consist of sedimentary rocks deposited in horizontal layers which were later deformed by crustal movements related to plate convergence.

  • Thumbnail for Landscapes of Japan, 10, Rice fields, Kanto Plain (Japan's largest), near Narita Airport.
    Landscapes of Japan, 10, Rice fields, Kanto Plain (Japan's largest), near Narita Airport.

    Rice fields, Kanto Plain (Japan's largest), near Narita Airport. -- The Kanto Plain is the largest of Japan's coastal lowland plains with an area of about 8,000 square miles (this is about equal to a square 70 miles on a side). The slide shows the multiple uses of flat land in Japan. Rice fields, gardens, roads, villages and towns and an international airport all compete for part of this lowland area.

  • Thumbnail for Japan, 1951:  Rice cultivation, terraced farming methods
    Japan, 1951: Rice cultivation, terraced farming methods

    The dominant landscape in Japan is still rural. More than half of the arable land is given over to rice cultivation, and 90% of the laborers are farmers. But 84% of the land area is mountainous- which means that each acre of tillable land must support 3,400 persons. The comparable figure for China is 1,400 while for the U.S. it is only 270 persons. --This was the description to accompany this image as written by Arthur O. Rinden, the photographer. His description, which he referred to as a "script" was to accompany a slide show of the images for his family and others.

  • Thumbnail for Essay: Geology and Geological Hazards of Japan
    Essay: Geology and Geological Hazards of Japan by Martin, Charles W.

    An essay by Dr. Charles Martin, Professor of Geology, Earlham College. Originally published by the Earlham Institute for Education on Japan, 1992. Included here as a PDF document, readable with Adobe Acrobat Reader. If you do not have the Acrobat Reader software installed on your computer, it may be obtained as a free download at http://www.adobe.com If you need any help with how to navigate through a PDF document, when you open the essay by Dr. Martin, click on the left arrow in the frame at the bottom of the window -- that will take you to a first page at the front of the document that gives simple directions for moving through a PDF file.

  • Thumbnail for Thorp Collection 123, Goiter- Gansu.
    Thorp Collection 123, Goiter- Gansu.

    This image and all others identified as ecasia000072 through ecasia000278, are scans of images from the James Thorp Collection, Earlham College. An explanation and description of the collection and its origin are included in the description of image I.D. ecasia000072, "Altar of Heaven at night, Beijing," the first Thorp image presented in this project collection.

  • Thumbnail for Thorp Collection 122, Road - Mapochuan - Paingshui, Gansu.
    Thorp Collection 122, Road - Mapochuan - Paingshui, Gansu.

    This image and all others identified as ecasia000072 through ecasia000278, are scans of images from the James Thorp Collection, Earlham College. An explanation and description of the collection and its origin are included in the description of image I.D. ecasia000072, "Altar of Heaven at night, Beijing," the first Thorp image presented in this project collection.

  • Thumbnail for Thorp Collection 106,  Lake caused by landslide, Gansu
    Thorp Collection 106, Lake caused by landslide, Gansu

    Lake caused by landslide, Gansu. This image and all others identified as ecasia000072 through ecasia000278, are scans of images from the James Thorp Collection, Earlham College. An explanatin and description of the collection and its origin are included in the description of image I.D. ecasia000072, "Altar of Heaven at night, Beijing," the first Thorp image presented in this project collection.

  • Thumbnail for Environmental Implications of Japan's Geology 20, Mt. Iwate, near Morioka.
    Environmental Implications of Japan's Geology 20, Mt. Iwate, near Morioka.

    Mt. Iwate, near Morioka. -- Mt. Iwate, a potentially dangerous composite volcano, reminds us that the same geological processes that can cause widespread death and destruction also produce much of the natural beauty of Japan. Convergence of earth plates bends and breaks crustal rocks producing earthquakes in the process, but at the same time uplifts the surface to create spectacular mountains. Erupting volcanoes formed along these convergent boundaries lay waste to the landscape, yet also produce magnificent, graceful peaks like Mt. Fuji and Mt. Iwate. Wave action erodes coastlines, but also creates picturesque sea cliffs and stacks and magnificent indented shorelines. The same dynamic earth processes that created the Japanese Islands make them both dangerous and magnificent. In Japan, it is very difficult not be affected, both physically and emotionally, by the natural environment.

  • Thumbnail for Environmental Implications of Japan's Geology 07, Volcanic presence, Mt. Fuji.
    Environmental Implications of Japan's Geology 07, Volcanic presence, Mt. Fuji.

    Volcanic presence, Mt. Fuji. -- Mt. Fuji is the largest, best known, and perhaps most beautiful of Japan's volcanoes, and like many of the others it is potentially dangerous. Primary hazards include explosive eruptions, pyroclastic flows of ash and burning gas capable of traveling at speeds up to seventy miles an hour, and lava flows. In the long run, however, secondary effects of eruptions may be even more devastating. Among these are crop and structural damage from the fall of volcanic ash, mudflows and landslides in thick piles of unstable ash, flooding caused by the damming of rivers by volcanic debris and lava flows, and even climatic change resulting from suspension of ash and dust in the atmosphere.

  • Thumbnail for Environmental Implications of Japan's Geology 19, Horyuji Gate (AD 607), Nara, survivor of many earthquakes.
    Environmental Implications of Japan's Geology 19, Horyuji Gate (AD 607), Nara, survivor of many earthquakes.

    Horyuji Gate (AD 607), Nara, survivor of many earthquakes. -- This very old structure is persuasive evidence of the durability of wooden buildings during earthquakes. In its nearly 1,400 year history, it has survived countless earthquakes, emerging relatively unscathed because of the flex inherent in wooden structures.