During the nineteenth century, the English Parliament commissioned a series of educational reports of Wales which aimed to denigrate the nation to aid an English cultural takeover, thus ensuring cultural homogeneity within England and Wales. In the educational reports, women were used as the markers of Wales and were conflated with barbarism and bestiality. The Welsh male elites responded virulently, claiming the virtuous nation of Welshwomen, and subsequently, Wales. Women were thus used as political pawns, and were tokenized, as opposed to being represented in of themselves. Following these responses, a Welsh national identity began to form which was centered around women. Wales came to be personified as a woman, thus the idealized version of Welsh womanhood was confined to such a degree that women had a very strict ideal to live up to.
Les contes de Charles Perrault sont bien connus, surtout dans le monde européen, et ils sont peut-être plus connus que toutes les autres versions des contes de la région. La popularité des contes et leur présence dans la formation des enfants aujourd’hui indiquent leur longévité et leur plasticité, et donc, parlent sur l’importance de l’auteur Charles Perrault et sa vision. Ce mémoire va discuter le rôle des contes de Perrault dans l’éducation des enfants au 18ème siècle et comment les contes sont une réflexion de la situation familiale courante en France. Les contes de La Belle au Bois Dormant, Cendrillon, Le Petit Chaperon Rouge et Peau d’Âne seront examinés en détail.
Linguistic anthropologists argue that communicative abilities of a foreign language can only be acquired when the learner understands the culture that is entwined within the language. Previous research has found international students to face difficulties with linguistic, social, and cultural barriers when living abroad in the United States. A mixed methods research was conducted in two parts in order to study not only the English language curriculum through which East Asian students have acquired English language skills, but also their experiences in communicating with native English speakers. Part I consisted of a personal narrative that explored the cultural elements associated with learning additional languages. Part II included findings from non-experimental quantitative data gathered through survey questionnaires and ethnographically grounded qualitative data found through semi-structured interviews. Participants consisted of ten university students in Seoul, South Korea who had either little or no experience living in an English-speaking country and ten East Asian international students at Colorado College, a private liberal arts college in the United States. Although the quantitative data did not present significant findings due to the small number of participants, contrastable mean responses between the Korean university and Colorado College students were supported by findings of the interviews and the review of literature. In addition, the interview data presented ten themes of common responses found among the participants. The main findings revealed that nearly all participants were dissatisfied with their communicative abilities and some even lacked communicative confidence due to an exam-oriented, grammatical focus in the English language curriculum of their home countries. Additionally, the participants suggested a stronger focus on speaking and cultural lessons in order to promote a greater communicative and cultural competence and thus, improve their confidence to socially interact with native English speakers.
Historic documentation of life at the turn of the 19th century created by residents of Colorado Springs, Colorado in 1901 for the citizens of 2001. Under the direction of Louis R. Ehrich, a prominent 19th century businessman, the items were sealed in a chest which was stored in various buildings on the Colorado College campus until the official opening January 1, 2001 at the Charles Leaming Tutt Library. Contents of Ms349, Fd 21, Public School System - John Dietrich include: 1 20-page, handwritten letter, dated August 1, 1901, addressed “To the Residents of Colorado Springs in the year 2001:” signed by John Dietrich, Superintendent of Schools; 8 b&w photos: “W. S. Morris - Member Board of Education,” “Rufus B. Thayer,” “O. E. Collins, Sec’y Board of Education,” “Rev. M. D. Ormes, Member Board of Education,” “George S. Elstun, Member Board of Education,” “O. E. Hemenway, Member Board of Education,” “A. G. Sharp, Treasurer of School District No. 11,” “John Dietrich, Superintendent of Schools”; 1 paperbound booklet “Colorado Springs Public Schools Outline of Studies: Elementary and High Schools 1897-1898”; 1 printed directory of School Board Members, Teachers, Committees and Janitors for 1900-1901; 1 printed card listing Officers and Committees of the Colorado Springs School Board, 1901-1902; 1 clothbound copy of By-laws and Rules and Regulations of the Public School System.
During the nineteenth century, the English Parliament commissioned a series of educational reports of Wales which aimed to denigrate the nation to aid an English cultural takeover, thus ensuring cultural homogeneity within England and Wales. In the educational reports, women were used as the markers of Wales and were conflated with barbarism and bestiality. The Welsh male elites responded virulently, claiming the virtuous nature of Welshwomen, and consequently, Wales. Women were thus used as political pawns, and were tokenized, as opposed to being represented in of themselves. Following these responses, a Welsh national identity began to form which was centered around women. Wales came to be personified as a woman, thus the idealized version of Welsh womanhood was confined to such a degree that women had a very strict ideal to live up to.
The purpose of this study was to define success at a Waldorf Public Community Charter School (WPCS) in Colorado and analyze how success plays out in the classroom. The difference between how WPCS defines success and how traditional Public School defines success was also analyzed. A review of literature was conducted to determine how traditional Public School and Waldorf Schools define success. Two questionnaires were administered through surveys given to the WPCS community. The first survey, created on Qualtrics©, was administered on the computer to the adult community members and focused on defining success at WPCS. In general, the responses regarding WPCS specifically were positive. The second survey – the Colorado Education Initiative Student Perception Survey – was administered on paper to students in grades 3-7. After the surveys were collected and the data was entered into a spreadsheet, themes were coded and conclusions were made. A WPCS community definition of success was written. The WPCS definition of success was based on 8 themes that were common throughout responses – passion/engagement, well rounded, joy, good citizen/mindful, determination, meet individualized goals, confidence/self-efficacy, and growth. Results from the Student Perception survey were analyzed to determine strengths and weaknesses in classroom experiences. Recommendations were given to support the Public Waldorf school movement. One recommendation was to make clearer the WPCS valued outcomes so that teachers do not end up stuck trying to figure out which outcomes they should be striving for.
This thesis determines if the Japanese government deviated from previously-established methods of movement from a despotic to an infrastructural power structure in using the Emperor to legitimize the changes taking place within the nation. Of primary focus is how Shintoism has evolved, discourse within the Japanese nation in incorporating foreign influences, and how the Japanese education system represented a key component in the utilization of Shintoism to address issues of modernization from 1853-1945.
Every year, one third of the global food supply is wasted through post-harvest, distribution, and household food losses. In a global food system, food consumption and waste practices have substantial environmental consequences and high levels of waste can reduce food access for the world’s poor. In the developed world, food waste occurs most heavily in the retail and consumer stages of the food supply chain. The U.S. Economic Research Service estimated that in 1995, 26 percent of the total edible food supply was wasted by individuals and the food-service industry. Using theory of utility maximization and imperfect information, this thesis uses a survey to explore whether consumers lack information that may contribute to reductions in food waste and what types of information would be most beneficial in decreasing household food waste. In addition, the study tracks food waste over the course of two weeks in a college cafeteria to examine whether an increase in information about the quantity of food waste leads to a decrease in plate waste. This study found that information on financial savings, “sell by” dates and other expiration codes, and the quantity of food wasted may be beneficial in reducing consumer food wastages. Further research in the area is necessary in order to determine the scope of the problem and possible solutions.
Often, elective programs such as art and physical education are the first items cut when middle school budgets become strained. The American Educational system places higher value on core curriculum classes such as math and science and there has been little research done on the importance of electives for student achievement. This thesis seeks to explore the benefits of elective courses for student achievement and a student’s education in general. The two motivational theories used to explore the relationship between electives, student achievement, and student motivation are Social Learning Theory and Job Characteristics Theory. A survey was sent out to a select sample of middle school administrators in Colorado to obtain rich qualitative data on the topic of electives in the middle school curriculum. The surveyed schools varied from high achieving schools to low achieving schools (achievement measured in standardized test scores) and across different districts in Colorado. The data was analyzed and found to be consistent with many of the characteristics of Social Learning Theory and Job Characteristics Theory.
Projected increases in demand for postsecondary credentials in the labor market have exposed an immediate need for the United States to significantly increase its college attainment rate. The current growth rate of college tuition and fees, however, has been outstripping inflation for decades, and is limiting access for a growing number of would-be college students. Significant variance in college tuition and financial aid levels among states complicate the issue, having prevented researchers from finding the true indicators that govern college tuition levels. I posit that increased future earnings potential is one of these indicators causing tuition price variance throughout the U.S. Specifically, each state’s college wage premium – the amount a college graduate can expect to make over a high school graduate – causes its tuition prices through a supply/demand equilibrium. I hypothesize that the average public college tuition in a state is directly correlated with its college wage premium. Colleges in states with a high premium have a more valuable product and are able to charge more. I test this by collecting data from College Board and the U.S. Census Bureau on average college tuition and median-level college wage premium, and run a simple OLS regression to determine the strength of correlation. I then discuss my results in the context of the United States’ college attainment goals.
Through the use of grounded theory methodology and the operationalization of a representative bureaucracy framework, this study investigates the perception of discretion within public administration in educational institutions. Public administrative actors use discretion to provide equitable learning opportunities, and without said discretion, underrepresented groups would have no extra support despite numerous disadvantages. In an attempt to give cause or further explanation as to the nature of this discretion, evidence from 20 interviews and 30 hours of observation of fifth grade classrooms in urbanized schools (n = 8) suggests a grounded theory of purposeful accountability to link an increased perception of discretion for teachers and principals. School officials can stay afloat in the age of accountability as long as their sense of belonging and ability to mobilize their organizations are maintained through proper access to centralized knowledge and expectations, the ability to fulfill needs unique to the organization, and the recognition of efforts and status through trust from centralized authority. With this theoretical foundation, public administrative actors can find greater progress and efficiency in assuring active representation through discretion.
Child labor is an on-going phenomenon in developing countries. In the world, International Labour Organization (2002) estimates 250 million children to be a part of child workforce. There have been many studies done at the microeconomic level to explain why child labor occurs and what can be done to end it. There are also a growing number of country-specific studies such as one on Vietnam by Erik Edmonds and another on Tanzania by Kathleen Beegle. The country I will study for this thesis is Nepal. In Nepal, there are child labor laws that restrict child labor to children 14 years old and older and are restricted from hazardous work. However in occasional interviews and surveys, they have found that children are still being employed for work. Another important aspect of child labor is the lack of education. In Nepal, the government has been forward thinking enough to provide free primary education and free textbooks for eligible students, but other costs of attendance are a heavy burden on the poor families. The purpose of the paper is to analyze the determinants of child labor in Nepal and to address how the current law in Nepal is affecting the children’s education, child labor, and ultimately the overall quality of life in the country. Idealistically, to find possible steps that could make a difference on child labor and a course of action that could eventually eliminate or minimalize the extent of child labor.
The treatment of education as a production function has become a relevant way to numerically assess the state of schools and districts at a local, state, and federal level. This study examines the relationship between accreditation scores, a more holistic assessment of district quality and achievement, and the three main inputs of the education system –student, teachers, and expenditures—by using an OLS regression of Colorado Department of Education data for the 2010 – 2011 school year. Significant negative correlations between specific operating costs and pupil-teacher ratio were found with accreditation scores. These, paired with social demographic variables, were to have the largest impact on accreditation scores and thus, district quality and achievement.
Ce mémoire analyse les œuvres Émile ou de l’éducation de Jean-Jacques Rousseau et L’Enfant de Maria Montessori qui captent les approches pédagogies de leurs auteurs. De manière comparative, nous dégageons les points d’intersection et les différences dans leurs philosophies sur l’éducation de la petite enfance (0-12 ans). Ensuite, nous avançons vers le 21ème siècle et nous reprenons les points les plus pertinentes de ces philosophies pédagogies pour la société moderne. Ce mémoire explore également le phénome du bilinguisme et l’expansion de la méthode Montessori, qui est inspirée par le travail de Rousseau, dans le 21ème siècle. Nous soulignons certaines de ses avantages et de ses problèmes. Finalement, nous concluons par les efforts d’adapter « les écoles Montessori » modernes pour préserver les idées principales de la fondatrice et en même répondre mieux aux besoins de l’enfant et de la société au 21ème siècle.
This study served to test a hypothesis that using Curwen hand signs while practicing sight-reading would improve pitch accuracy. This study is designed, in part, to begin dialogue surrounding beneficial sight-reading practices in an effort to develop a nationwide curriculum for performing arts programs. Students participated in pretest/posttest assessments as well as qualitative surveys to assess background familiarity with using hand signs as well as assess the general attitude towards the practice of sight-reading. They also completed a modality preference instrument to determine whether kinesthetic learners benefitted differently. After one pretest assessment, students were conditioned for two months, followed by two posttest assessments. The conditioning phase consisted of techniques and philosophies based in the Kodály method, created by Hungarian composer and educator Zoltán Kodály (1882-1967). This method also incorporates the use of hand signs to represent diatonic scale degrees as created and implemented by John Curwen (1816-1880). While the data collected shows no correlation between simply using hand signs and improved test scores, there are many variables that can be attributed to these results, including consecutive years in a choir program, requirements set forth by previous instructors, and modality learning preferences. Many of these issues are discussed in the results of the study. The main result of the study indicates that there are a myriad of paths to take towards the development of a nationwide curriculum for sight-reading.
This paper uses DHS sample data on Swaziland to investigate the relationship between education and health by focusing on education level (defined by number of years of schooling) and quality of HIV/AIDS knowledge and their effects on risky sexual behavior. An ordered probit model is used to address the quality of HIV/AIDS knowledge, using a 4 level scale, where knowledge ranges from zero/no knowledge to excellent knowledge. A regular probit model is used to analyze the effect of the quality of HIV/AIDS knowledge on various factors used as a measure of risky sexual behavior. The main findings are that the education level is positively correlated to the quality of HIV/AIDS knowledge. Yet, a higher quality of HIV/AIDS knowledge does not always result in safe sexual behaviors. It does not influence the likelihood of having multiple sexual partners in a statistically significant way, but does increase the likelihood of condom use.
The recent natural gas boom in the United States, attributable to the widespread use of hydraulic fracturing, has led to abundant economic benefits over the past few years. The industry has grown so rapidly that it is important to analyze its social effects on the communities in which the extraction occurs. This paper investigates the impact of natural gas drilling on the human capital stock and accumulation of human capital in the county of extraction. Drawing on previous research that investigates how human capital is affected in the event of natural resource abundance, this paper isolates the impact a cubic foot increase in production of natural gas has on the educational outcome of a particular county. Through the use of a panel data regression, results show that counties with higher production, or any production at all, have a higher number of college dropouts as well as lower enrollment rates when looking at lagged gas production. The analysis demonstrates that natural gas production negatively affects both human capital accumulation and stock for that county.
This research study focuses on analyzing the effectiveness of environment-friendly practices and programs in schools on creating environment-friendly habits and raising environmental awareness of elementary school students. We select two different elementary schools in Colorado Springs and survey students aged between 7 and 11 years old. We use the Seemingly Unrelated Regressions (SUR) model to analyze our data. The results show that the school with stronger environmental program and focus does have a relevant positive impact on the environment conscious answers to questions in the student survey. Interestingly, we also find that students’ age and gender seem to have no significant impact on students’ answers.
This report summarizes the activities of the committees and officers of the WES Board of Managers for the year June, 2005 â April 1, 2006.
Colorado College Distinguished Lecturer and Legal Scholar-in-Residence Phil Kannan says Hispanics have been the victims of discriminatory laws and policies in almost every part of their lives in the U.S. including housing, voting, employment, medical care and education. Hispanics in the Southwest turned to federal courts to challenge state and local laws, and policies regarding education. This presentation will look at the most significant of those court battles. Recorded September 13, 2006.
This quantitative study seeks to understand the effects of public school funding, expenditures, school, and neighbor-hood demographics on 2011 Transitional Colorado Assessment Program (TCAP) tests. Primarily, this thesis tries to answer whether or not public school funding has a significant effect on TCAP scores, how demographics shape both funding and TCAP scores, and how neighborhood and school demographics relate to each other. With public schools in Colorado as the unit of analysis, unemployment and education levels are used in conjunction with school demographics including student race, poverty, number of students, and student-teacher ratio are used to determine differences throughout the state and how they translate to academic performance. TCAP scores are used to gauge disparities in academic performance throughout the state. This study confirms many of the existing literature claims that student personal background, along with home-life, and institutional quality of schools exhibit some considerable effect on student performance uncovering unique findings as well.
China's National College Entrance Examination system (NCEE) is the driving force behind the Chinese education system as a whole. This single test is not only a determinant of an examinees future, but also guides the entire country's education system and curriculum while encouraging many traditional Chinese beliefs. In theory the test simply serves to filer students into appropriate colleges using a high-stakes testing system. However, in practice the NCEE serves as a lens through which the Chinese culture looks. This high-stakes testing system has created social urgency and fever surrounding education and college admission. As a single predictor of success and the only factor in college admissions, intense competition and pressure is created in Chinese society. Though the culture created the test, the test is in some respects also shaping the culture.
Recent polls indicate that only 15% of Americans accept secular evolution as the cause of human origins and less than 10% possess a functional understanding of evolutionary concepts (Gregory 2009; Newport 2012). Due to various social and psychological barriers to the acceptance and understanding of evolutionary theory as well as a minimal educational focus on evolution, for some Americans visiting institutions of informal education like natural history museums is their only opportunity to obtain scientifically sound information about evolution (Diamond and Evans 2007; Spiegel et al. 2006). Many studies have investigated natural history museum visitors’ understanding of evolution but few have examined understanding of human evolution in particular. Data were collected over a five-day period at the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, DC. Ninety-six museum visitors participated in an exit survey in the Hall of Human Origins. Fifty percent of visitors subscribed to young earth creationist or theistic evolutionary beliefs. Visitors’ answers to questions pertaining to information presented in the exhibition and their understanding of the principles of evolution as the basis of human origins were scored for accuracy. Relationships were found between acceptance and understanding, with those who accepted secular evolution scoring on average 79%, those who accepted theistic evolution scoring on average 70%, and those who accepted young earth creationism scoring on average 41%. Results indicate that visitors held several misconceptions about evolution, e.g. new traits that arise in populations are always beneficial (54%) and adaptations arise in response to need or an intentional effort to change by individuals (68%). Because natural history museums house the objective scientific knowledge and fundamental evidence for evolution, they play an important role in educating the public. However, as these results indicate, personal beliefs influence visitors’ ability to understand the principles of evolution as the basis of human origins.