Over the past couple of decades, tourism has become one of the most significant and vibrant aspects of the economy of the Ladakh region in Northern India. It is probably the largest revenue generating sector, especially since the past few years with tourist arrivals exceeding the local population of the region. While tourism definitely seems to have boosted economic growth, it has also led to growing concerns regarding the impact on the natural as well as the cultural environment and the possible consequences on the touristic appeal of the region. Although this forms an important issue for the stability of the local economy, it remains fairly unstudied in the context of Ladakh. This thesis attempts to contribute to the scant literature by providing quantitative evidence to back up the underlying concerns by investigating the sustainability of tourism in the town of Leh in Ladakh through the application of an ordered probit model on tourist survey results. Tourist satisfaction level is used as the sustainability indicator and is modeled in terms of the tourist’s preferences and assessments of the characteristic features of the region. The paper also analyzes Leh’s tourist arrival trends in the context of Butler’s tourist area life cycle (TALC) model and employs the ARIMA forecasting method to produce short term predictions for tourist arrivals. The overall results suggest that Leh’s strength lies in its characteristics like the unique landscape, the cultural heritage and traditions as well as the monasteries and other ancient architectural heritage. The high satisfaction levels reported from the majority of tourists combined with the forecast results seem to suggest that tourism can be sustained at least in the short term. Long term performance would be entirely determined by how the present strengths are handled and by the measures taken to counter the ongoing negative changes.
Research university impacts are difficult to measure, but vital to understanding the economic development surrounding these universities. This study examines whether research universities in the United States contribute significantly to regional economic development and whether agglomeration economies explain earnings per worker based on university presence or not. Drawing on county-by-county data for the first time, more precisely highlights more specifically the differences between regions with universities and regions without. The effects of university presence, federal, state and institutional research and development expenditures, and industry presence on earnings per worker are tested using multivariate regression analysis. The study finds that university presence alone impacts the presence of industries related to science and technology. University impact measurements are becoming more important as universities compete for government funding.
The existing literature has not thoroughly investigated the relationship between higher education and economic development, especially in the context of Africa. This paper studies the effects of financial accessibility to higher education and its relationship with income inequality. I employ a three-stage conditional-mixed process model on 30 sub-Saharan African countries between 1980-2014. The results show that improving financial accessibility to higher education reduces income inequality through higher enrollment rates and greater productivity. The implications of these results are significant; focusing on creating an inclusive higher education system could greatly improve the income distribution in sub-Saharan Africa.
Ending extreme poverty is one of the United Nation’s 8 Millennium Development Goals; a goal hoped to be reached by 2015. In this study I attempt to determine the factors most influential on a country’s poverty level. I observe 10 of the 12 countries in South America over 3 time periods, 1998, 2003, and 2005, making 30 total observations of panel data. Variables that correlated positively in my model with poverty were population growth and the age dependency ratio. Variables that correlated negatively in my model with poverty were health expenditure, trade, government effectiveness and GDP growth rate. The most influential variables I found to be population growth and government effectiveness.
International trade has allowed the Chinese economy to boom and “Made in China” tags to dominate the world market. However, a number of studies have argued that the rapidly growing Chinese economy has placed great amount of pressure on its natural environment. The emphasis on export-led growth may bring in its wake, pollution to China. This thesis gives empirical evidence to the question that whether exports in China have caused environmental issues, especially air pollution. I use data from 31 provinces in mainland China over the period from 2002 to 2012. The results show that there is no strong relationship between air pollution in China and its exports, but the economic growth in general has hazardous impacts onto the environment.
A large part of the growth gap in post-communist transition economies can be attributed to how well each country has internalized the inward capital injections from foreign direct investment (FDI) and its accompanying positive spillovers into tangible and sustainable economic growth. On the one hand, most of Central and Eastern European countries have achieved a rapid economic growth from FDI. On the other hand, countries like Georgia, Mongolia, and Tajikistan, are still struggling to use FDI to sustainably expand economically. Thus, this study hypothesizes that the economic successes of transition economies today were largely determined by the individual FDI absorptive capacities. Employing a panel data for a sample of 32 post-communist transition economies, this study finds that the most significant absorptive capacity factor of FDI is human capital. In support of past literature, the study also finds a positive, significant relationship between economic growth and R&D, development of financial and institutional systems, and openness to trade.
Over the last century, Latin American countries have experienced positive economic growth, but with one in five Latin Americans living in poverty throughout rural and urban communities, it is pertinent for Latin American countries to attract foreign direct investment. This paper contributes to economic literature by exploring the relationship between foreign direct investment, economic growth and human capital accumulation in 19 Latin American countries and finds that both foreign direct investment and human capital accumulation have a significant impact on gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. However, when the economic model controls for literacy rates, foreign direct investment loses its significance and explanatory power meaning that Latin American countries should concern themselves with, and implement policy changes that promote, the accumulation of human capital.
In this overview, Walter E. Hecox, State of the Rockies project director and Elizabeth Kolbe, State of the Rockies program coordinator, present topics addressed during the 2009 State of the Rockies, including: How do environmental concerns affect life in the Rockies? How do we manage the inevitable growth here in the Rockies? What are megapolitans? Why should I care about the recreational sector of the Rockies?
This thesis hypothesizes that current economic and social development strategies promoted by the World Bank in Central America are economically and environmentally unsustainable. Thus, the region should shift to implementing sustainable development strategies, such as sustainable agriculture, alterative energy sources, increased education, environmental justice, and region-specific development to reduce inequalities and environmental degradation in the region. The thesis presents data about current economic and social conditions in the six countries. The World Bank is analyzed because it remains the primary economic development agency in Central America. The history of the organization and impacts on the region are analyzed. Finally, examples of sustainable alternatives from Latin America are presented as viable options for Central America.
Dr. Bernard Amadei, founder of the organization "Engineers Without Borders", presents an informative and passionate program of the small engineering projects in third world countries that have improved the lives of the people living there. Part of Notable Lectures & Performances series, Colorado College. Recorded October 20, 2009.
This paper seeks to explore the complex interactions of stakeholders in Northern Thailand’s rural development and examines the local, village-level impacts of different development discourses in an attempt to find what within these agendas has proven successful to local communities. Most important in this analysis is the role of local knowledge, villager agendas, and cultural durability in light of these projects. Looking at a variety of case studies from a number of different stakeholders in the conversation I analyze the impacts, both positive and negative, of the current rural development paradigms. Primarily, this paper examines the impacts of agricultural and forest development in ethnic hill tribe villages throughout Thailand. Rural villages in Southeast Asia’s Golden Triangle, the area where Laos, Thailand and China converge, still heavily rely on agriculture for their own self-sufficiency and incomes (Bello et al. 1998), although, land transformation and ecological degradation has created land insecurity in many of these Northern regions (UHDP, personal communication, January 26, 2013). [Keywords: sustainable development, indigenous knowledge, Northern Thailand]
The pattern of stagnating growth and underdevelopment remains an all too common phenomenon for countries with a colonial past, regardless of efforts by developmental economists and international organizations. In order to increase our understanding of what factors lead to this pattern, this study investigates the link between colonization and growth by examining trade characteristics of prior colonies. Using data from the World Bank, the IMF and the OECD, this study utilizes simultaneous equation modeling to determine how trade patterns can provide the link between colonization and the current state of underdevelopment in Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America. This leads to a more refined understanding of why economic development fails to occur even in a period of booming international trade and globalization. Probing into the trade patterns of these nations, this paper answers the following question: Does colonial identity impact trade and growth patterns today? This study finds that history plays a role in determining how countries trade and grow, but the results are varied depending on the analysis utilized. Furthermore, there is a link between the types of goods traded and the growth of a nation, but trade in primary products does not necessarily limit a country’s growth potential.
Beginning in the early 1960's, local governments throughout the United States have implemented growth management policies intended to influence the pattern of development and restrict growth. These regulations affect the conditions of community life by increasing property values, shifting demographics, and altering the delivery of public services. This thesis examines these effects through case studies of the City of Boulder, the City of Berkeley, and the City of Fort Collins, using data primarily from the US Census Bureau. It is hypothesized that the city with the most growth management policies will experience these effects to a greater magnitude. This was found to be partly true; there are other overriding factors that contribute to these changes more so than the presence or absence of growth management policies.
This paper investigates the relationship between income inequality and suicidal behavior in the United States. Empirical results from all 50 states and aggregate U.S. data between 1999 and 2015 provided significant results describing the association between suicide rates and economic factors. Specifically, economic growth, median household income, and income inequality seem to have a significant impact on male suicide rates. Contrary to prior studies, increases in median household income corresponded to higher male suicide rates. Additionally, data suggest gross domestic product (GDP) per capita has a positive relationship with suicidal behavior. However, in support of the held hypothesis, the results show that as the level of income inequality in the United States increases there is a significant decline in male suicide rates. The results demonstrate the importance of researching the socio-economic factors that may be contributing changes in suicide rates.
Edward C. Prescott discusses the advantages and disadvantages of economic integration among sovereign states with respect to economic growth, involving more generally an analysis of globalization. Professor Prescott is a senior monetary adviser at the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis and is a major figure in macroeconomics, especially the theories of business cycles and general equilibrium. Part of Notable Lectures & Performances series, Colorado College. Recorded March 2, 2009.