The following paper will use the civil wars of Spain and Northern Ireland as two case studies for the analysis of the individual expression of trauma. I will establish the historical contexts of the two wars, followed by an examination and comparison of the collective and individual silences and the memorialization of the civil wars. Afterwards, I will analyze the effects of trauma on the individual expression of the civil wars. Finally I will discuss the limitations of the archives. Through the comparative study of two civil wars and the different methods of memorialization and representation, an argument may be made that in order to discuss an individual’s traumatic experience he or she may use the polyphonic discourse thereby allowing the speaker to both represent his or her experiences as well as begin to process any past trauma.
In early India both the Brahmanic and Buddhist communities generated myths featuring Kāma, the god of love and desire. These myths served as an allegory for the shifting discourse on sexuality, which conveyed specific models of sexual behavior in order to preserve traditional Brahmanic cosmic and patriarchal social order. Additionally, a significant portion of this discourse on sexuality focused on the Buddhist and Brahmanic struggle to gain control over women’s roles within social, political, economic, and religious contexts. The Buddha-Kāma myth emphasized renunciation and detachment. This Buddhist message of renunciation was viewed as a threat to the Brahmanic social order. This narrative depicted the Bodhisattva meditating under a tree in the hope of attaining enlightenment; indeed Kāma attempts to distract the Bodhisattva, to no avail. The Brahmanic community responded by producing the Hindu myth of Śiva and Kāma, which depicted a battle between Śiva and Kāma, wherein Kāma attempted to rouse Śiva, who, in anger, responded by burning Kāma to the ash, only to resurrect him later. This Brahmanic narrative successfully subsumed the ascetic threat by re-establishing Kāma’s place in the cosmic order and emphasizing that controlled desire was fundamental for the preservation of the universe.
The social movement to end violence in the home has always been characterized by discursive struggles, both within the movement and in its engagement with wider society. This study examines how movement discourse is transformed and rationalized at the individual level, presenting a case study of one domestic violence advocacy agency located in a politically conservative community. In-depth interviews were conducted with 17 employees and volunteers of the organization, including three former employees. The study found a central discursive struggle within the organization surrounding the use of gendered language, reflecting tensions between newer and older members of the movement. A new discourse of “inclusivity” is becoming prominent in the organization, and its complexities suggest that de-gendering language may be a much more nuanced discursive shift than researchers of the movement have previously stated. In somewhat of a contradiction, proponents of inclusivity simultaneously see gender-neutral language as fitting into the conservative political landscape, yet also as progressively challenging this landscape by allying with the LGBT community. As gender-neutral comes to be seen as the “new progressive” and older advocates feel increasingly unable to express their concerns, the movement must examine the possibilities and consequences of its shifting discourse for social change.