This paper examines whether the legalization of marijuana has contributed to crime rates around Colorado and Washington. Specifically, the primary objective of this paper is to analyze incident based crime rates in a 1,400-ft radius around each dispensary before and after legalization. I collected incident-based crime data from cities across Colorado and Washington from January 2009 to November 2014. For the control variables, I primarily used census block groups around each dispensary and employment data collected from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). After sorting each variable into sub-categories, I am able to test my hypothesis at different levels across the dataset. Aggregate data analysis supports the hypothesis that legalizing recreational marijuana would have no statistically significant effect on crime in Colorado and Washington. Categorizing my results suggest crimes such as Burglary and Robbery increased by up to 111%, while Vandalism and ‘All Other Crimes’ decreased by up to 130% since legalization.
Few studies have investigated the effects of medical marijuana laws on crime and even fewer have investigated the effects of retail marijuana laws on crime. These studies have mostly employed state-level panel data (Alford, 2014; Morris, TenFyck, Barnes & Kovandzic, 2014; Gavrilova, Kamada & Zoutman, 2014). I aim to study the effects of both medical and retail marijuana laws using city-level panel data. In order to model crime, along with medical and retail marijuana indicator variables, I include socioeconomic and demographic time-varying factors that are known contributors to crime. By using a two-way fixed effects two stage least squares approach, I control for unobserved constant heterogeneity and endogeneity. The results indicate that medical marijuana laws have a decreasing effect on property crime and retail marijuana laws have an increasing effect on property crime. Additionally, they show that the physical dispensaries are the driving factors causing this relationship. However, the results should be interpreted cautiously because there may be unobserved time-varying characteristics that my model does not capture.
The National Basketball Association has a problem and the problem is not on the court, but off of it. Between the 2001-2002 season and the 2004-2005 season seventy-two players that played in the league had been citied for their illegal off court behavior some time during their career. This study examines the culture of the NBA. It also examines the affects of illegal off-court behavior on the salaries of players. The affect is determined by a completing a regression analysis. In the regression analysis salary is the dependent variable. To control for the fact that arrests are only one factor in the determining a player's salary this study includes a number of other independent variables including, points per minute and rebounds per minute. This study finds plays a role in determining if players have economic incentives to keep themselves out of trouble.
Crime is very prevalent among athletes of all sports at all levels, but it is seen especially often among football players, whether it be in high school, college, or the NFL. In the following study I determine the variables that have significance on where a college player gets drafted and how much that player gets paid in his rookie contract. In this study I used variables in order to forecast where a player will be drafted using a negative binomial count estimator. I then used this forecasted draft position in an OLS regression with the dependent variable of guaranteed money in a player’s rookie contract. I found that there were some variables that showed up as significant in many of the regressions, however off the field issues of a player was not significant in the regression analysis.
The military is inherently associated with violence. Some studies have attempted to forge a link between military members and property crime or previous abuse, but none have explored the specific link between domestic violence and the military. This study presents a game-theoretic model that attempts to determine if the presence of military bases is positively correlated with the rates of violent crimes in the area. A Tobit regression model is used to identify the determinants of violent crime at a county level. Results indicate that the branch of the military most consistently associated with elevated levels of violence is the Air Force. This may, however, be largely dependent on the specific time period used for the study.
In the southeast region of Colorado Springs there is an isolation of crime. Along with high crime rates, this region experiences lower socioeconomic living, a gang presence, and more violent crimes compared to the rest of the city. Because of the recession, Colorado Springs’ crime operations are experiencing budget cuts which may result in an influx of crime. This study models five regressions looking for youth characteristics that are linked to criminal outcomes such as conviction and gang membership. Family, friend, and substance use variables are predicted to have strong relationships with conviction and gang membership outcomes. Results of this study can direct future crime prevention research as well as implemented in early detection of delinquency models.
Many have addressed the issue of Mixed Martial Arts as a violent blood sport that promotes violence in our society. On the other hand, martial artists have long claimed that martial arts promote peace of the mind and therefore a peaceful society. Using police data from Chicago, I analyze the effect of the biggest Mixed Martial Arts organization’s (UFC) PPV shows on crimes. I controlled for many variables such as time, day of the week, holidays, unemployment and more. The results indicate that viewing Mixed Martial Arts neither increases nor decreases crimes. The implications of such results are that bans on the sport in certain states or countries should be lifted as there are many positives a popular televised Mixed Martial Arts event can bring such as tax revenues, media attention, and entertainment for its viewers.
Despite having the largest total prison population of any nation, empirical research on the effect of economic conditions on crime rates remains limited. This paper provides an analysis on economic freedom and labor market freedoms effect on property and violent crime rates. These economic freedom indexes rank states based on their minimum wage laws, size of government and union density. Using a panel data set from 2005-2012 across the United States, I find that higher levels of economic freedom are not significantly associated with crime rates.
This paper synthesizes prevailing theories on optimal crime control, recidivism, and analyses of the determinants of drug use and offers suggestions to improve correctional efficiency through alternative means of drug prohibition punishments. It is likely that reduced crime rates, recidivism rates, inmate populations, and correctional costs without significant negative externalities could result from alterations in drug prohibition laws and enforcement policies. The decriminalization of all or most illicit drugs is suggested to be the most efficient means of controlling illicit drug use and should reduce the resources necessary for the maintenance of drug control policy.
This paper examines the impact of crime on National Football League salaries. To evaluate the impact of crime, this paper uses on-field performance statistics from 2009-2018 seasons that was scraped from NFL.com and annual salary data from both USA Today NFL Salary Database and the Spotrac Salary Rankings Database. This study analyzes this data using an ordinary least squares regression model. It is important to note that the data for on-field statistics is not specific for each position used in this model and is limited due to the use of previously scraped data. In addition, it is important to note that there is an insignificant number of players who committed crimes in relation to the total number of players observed. Therefore, the regression results are insignificant. However, the results do suggest that if an NFL player commits a crime, it is likely that there will be no repercussions from the NFL regarding the player’s salary.
An exploratory study of Detroit’s economic trends with a focus on Real Estate with relationship to crime rates. This paper looks not only at the past but the present and future of Detroit’s success and what the city needs to do in order to ensure that it is a top destination city in America. Their population has been on a steady decline since the deindustrialization of the United States, while crime rates have sky rocketed since the start of the 21st Century. Their real estate market has been sub-par compared to similar Rust Belt cities but is showing signs of increasing which will hopefully separate Detroit from its’ gloomy past.
Speaking to a long-standing tradition of the Rockies Report Cards "grading" the region on a variety of attributes, this year includes a brief look at three areas: crime and incarceration in the Rockies, historic preservation in the Rockies, and an evaluation of regional representation by elected officials. The Report Card also tackles issues of wildlife in the Rockies, dedicating three sections to the topic: "Wildlife: Range and Condition," "Wildlife Management," and "Impacts of Energy Development on Wildlife." Tangentially, the Report Card addresses water issues and population changes with the sections: "Wild and Scenic Rivers" and "Repopulating the Rockies." Edited by Walter E. Hecox (CC professor of economics), Elizabeth L. Kolbe (CC class of 2008), and Matthew K. Reuer.