In the 19th century, China encountered the first group of European colonialists and other foreigners. Nationalism, including views on different races, started to form. In the 20th century, ideas of racial categories and how Chinese people belong to the more superior "Yellow race" continued to develop and triggered national pride and rebellion against colonialists. During the Mao-era, nationalism was temporarily replaced with communism, but soon came back after Mao died in 1976. In the 1980s when China opened its market, people of the world, especially of the developing countries, were driven to China for its massive economic opportunities. As a result, Chinese people started to practice ideas of nationalism in their daily interactions with foreigners. This study took an ethnographic approach in order to examine the practice of nationalism in daily life among Chinese residents in Guangzhou, which has the largest African population throughout the country. The study included an explicit review of the historical development of China’s nationalism, along with a one-month ethnographic field research project that utilized interviews with 22 Chinese and 14 Africans in areas with higher concentration of Africans in Guangzhou. The results show that racism against Africans is commonly expressed among the Chinese participants. I found that their rationale of anti-African racism mostly originates from the structure of China’s nationalism that has been building since the 19th century.
This study provides a theoretical analysis and empirical investigation of China's reliance on net exports to grow its gross domestic product (GDP), and current efforts to shift towards a more private domestic consumption driven economy. Using data from 1975 to present and analyzing numerous past research done on similar topics regarding China's GDP expenditures and net export driven developing countries, suggestions supporting private domestic consumption as the most efficient GDP expenditure variable to sustaining long term growth are made.
During the past forty years, China has experienced possibly the largest amount of internal population migration in history where one-quarter of the population migrated from either village to cities or small cities to big cities. While most of the people chose to retain their double-residential status both in the rural and urban areas, there is still a large number of people hoping that they could settle in the cities and be incorporated as part of China’s urbanization process, but the Chinese Hukou system(Household registration) hinders a lot of the migrants from doing so. There have been constant reforms carried out with respect to the Hukou system and the focus of this paper draws on the policy implications from the Hukou reform and whether the migration pattern has changed following the Hukou reform.