Many studies have investigated which factors contribute to attendance in sports; however, many have not performed such analysis for the sport of football. This article, therefore, investigates the determinants of attendance in English football over eleven seasons, from 2002-2003 to 2012-2013 using a panel estimation method. Various seasonal statistics, economic factors, and demographic factors are used as determinants in the analysis. The results indicate that the league a team plays in, transfer expenditure, and team performance have a positive effect on attendance. On the other hand, we find that city population has a negative effect on attendance. These results provide suggestions for how club owner’s can implement policies in order to increase attendance, consequently increasing revenue and profits.
Previous research has examined factors influencing attendance at various sports leagues, but very little attention has been focused specifically on the PGA and PGA Tour. This study examines the potential factors influencing a fan to attend PGA and PGA Tour tournaments from the 1998-2007 seasons. This study incorporates a regression analysis along with qualitative research to analyze the data. The regression results suggest that income, the type of course the tournament is played on, and the tournament number are all important factors influencing attendance at PGA and PGA Tour tournaments. However, the qualitative research results suggest that Tiger Wood's participation and the strength of the field competing in the tournament are the most important factors impacting attendance.
For many years the National Hockey League was struggling to bring fans to their games. Due to such low attendance and salary caps, the National Hockey League decided to have a lockout in 2004-2005 which was the first ever season ending lockout in any sport. Since the lockout, attendance in the NHL slowly started to increase. This thesis looks at what factors affect attendance in the NHL since the lockout. Attendance was low before the lockout, but after the lockout attendance started to increase more and more every year. This thesis tests for what the NHL is doing right since the lockout so that they can continue to increase their attendance ratings even more. The research was taken from NHL.com, Versus. com, and ESPN.com. Data was found for all thirty NHL teams. A regression was used to test the data with the dependent variable being attendance. The independent variables are; goals scored, total points, winning percent, competitive balance, location, all-stars, games played, play-offs, weekend games, minor penalty minutes, and major penalty minutes. The regression found that four variables were significant in affecting attendance. These four variables were goals scored, location, minor penalty minutes, and major penalty minutes. This thesis proves that there are other factors besides game factors that affect attendance; however, the four game factors that affect attendance go along with the new rule changes that the NHL created after the lockout proving that the NHL is doing some of the right things to increase attendance in the NHL.
Increasing attendance is crucial for the livelihood of ski resorts. With out customers the resorts would not operate. In order to determine the factors that drive attendance in ski resorts it is necessary to use data from previous years to see which variables drive attendance. The approach used to identify the variables involved a dynamic demand function, and an estimation of the effect of these variables using an Ordinary Least Squares regression model. The data used in this study originated from Ski Industries America, and private information obtained from an inside source. The results of the study suggest that there are steps that resorts can take to increase attendance. The most significant variables price, acres, vertical drop, and snowfall. The magnitude of the four aforementioned coefficients is large relative to the others in the model.
The Division 1 Men’s Ice Hockey Team for Colorado College sells out at their home arena, The World Arena, at 7,343. As one of two division 1 sports at Colorado College, this venue provides great entertainment for fans of the Colorado College Tigers. There have not been any studies to examine why and how the World Arena maintains such a successful rate of attendance. An Ordinary Least Squares Regression is used to determine which factors are significant in affecting attendance at Tiger Hockey Games. Ticket sales are used as a proxy for measuring attendance. Using two different models, results show that playing The Air Force Academy, being regular season champions, making it to the NCAA tournament and making it to the Frozen Four tournament are most significant in increasing attendance. Other variables that were also significant are penalty minutes.