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  • Thumbnail for Hiroshima: Peace Memorial Museum, Immediate effects of blast and heat on physical objects, 05.
    Hiroshima: Peace Memorial Museum, Immediate effects of blast and heat on physical objects, 05.

    Even far from the hypocenter, dark areas on fabrics burned instantly from the thermal rays and railroad ties burst into flame. At 600 meters, the heat melted together these ceramic roof tiles, indicating an instantaneous flash of temperature well in excess of 1200-1300 degrees Centigrade (perhaps 2200-2400 degrees Fahrenheit), the temperature at which clay roof tiles would begin to melt.

  • Thumbnail for Hiroshima: Peace Memorial Museum, Immediate effects of blast and heat on physical objects, 06.  Buddha's Head (sandstone sculpture)
    Hiroshima: Peace Memorial Museum, Immediate effects of blast and heat on physical objects, 06. Buddha's Head (sandstone sculpture)

    This head of the Buddha figure, carved in sandstone, was found at the site of the Seigan Temple, 450 meters from the hypocenter, Zaimoku-cho (now Nakajima-cho).

  • Thumbnail for Hiroshima:  View of destruction near the hypocenter
    Hiroshima: View of destruction near the hypocenter

    A view of the burned-out community and a burned streetcar, taken from Moto-machi, 310 meters from the hypocenter. The photo was taken on August 12, 1945.

  • Thumbnail for Hiroshima:  View of the city in flames
    Hiroshima: View of the city in flames

    This photo shows the city in flame on August 6, as seen from Furuichi-cho, Asa-gun, 7,000 meters from the hypocenter.

  • Thumbnail for Hiroshima:  Black Rain.
    Hiroshima: Black Rain.

    This is a section of a white wall from a house that was 3,700 meters from the hypocenter. The roof of the house had been set askew by the force of the atomic blast, allowing the black rain that fell following the blast to run down the white plaster wall, staining it. Analysis of the stains indicated that the black rain contained radioactive fallout from the atomic bomb blast. This section of wall was donated by Akijiro Yashima, and it is now displayed in the Peace Memorial Museum, Hiroshima.

  • Thumbnail for Hiroshima:  View showing the damage from the intense heat
    Hiroshima: View showing the damage from the intense heat

    This photos shows the frame of the Odamasa Store that had stood on Ebisu-cho, 840 meters from the hypocenter. The steel framework of the building has been completely twisted by the extreme heat of the explosion and the ensuing fires that swept the city. Photographed in mid-August, 1945.

  • Thumbnail for Hiroshima:  View of the city center still smoldering the day after the bombing
    Hiroshima: View of the city center still smoldering the day after the bombing

    This photograph was taken the day after the bombing and shows city center still smoldering. There is the body of a young boy in the lower left. The photo was taken from Shimonakan-cho, 470 meters from the hypocenter, August 7, 1945.

  • Thumbnail for Hiroshima:  View of a plain of rubble
    Hiroshima: View of a plain of rubble

    This view is of Yamaguchi-cho and Shimoyanagi-cho seen from Hiratsuka-cho. The site is 1,350 meters from the hypocenter. The photo was taken in mid-August, 1945.

  • Thumbnail for Hiroshima:  Poem of Hope.
    Hiroshima: Poem of Hope.

    In this photo of the ruins of Hiroshima, taken in the autumn, 1945, we can see a plant that had come back to life and blossomed. Superimposed on it is a poem of great hope and affirmation. It is displayed near the exit of the Peace Memorial Museum.

  • Thumbnail for Hiroshima: Peace Memorial Museum, Immediate effects of blast and heat on physical objects, 02.  Fused lump of small glass bottles.
    Hiroshima: Peace Memorial Museum, Immediate effects of blast and heat on physical objects, 02. Fused lump of small glass bottles.

    The Fujitsuka home was totally destroyed by the blast. The youngest child in the family, Tadashi (then 4 years old), was exposed outside and severely burned by the blast. He died the next day. When his elder brother, Minoru (then 19), returned from miltary service in September, he was stunned by the death of his young brother and by the utter devastation of the entire city of Hiroshima. This lump of fused glass, ink bottles melted together by the heat, was found in a former ink factory that had stood across the street from the family's home. (Donated by Minoru Fujitsuka.) 1,800 meters from the hypocenter, Matoba-cho.

  • Thumbnail for Hiroshima: Peace Memorial Museum, Immediate effects of blast and heat on physical objects, 03.  Teacups fused together.
    Hiroshima: Peace Memorial Museum, Immediate effects of blast and heat on physical objects, 03. Teacups fused together.

    Ichiji Nakata (then 36) was standing by in his home on military orders. He was shaving when exposed to the A-bomb. His wife Fumiko and their two children were exposed just after they emerged from the bomb shelter. Ichiji and his children died instantly. Fumiko sustained serious injuries but survived. A few days later, Fumiko and Ichiji's mother found a lump of these melted cups in the ruins of their home and took it with them as a keepsake . . . Fumiko died on August 30. The entire family was lost. (Donated by Yukio Nakata.) 1,000 meters from the hypocenter, Teppo-cho

  • Thumbnail for Hiroshima:  Aerial photograph of the city, showing areas of damage
    Hiroshima: Aerial photograph of the city, showing areas of damage

    This aerial photo of Hiroshima was taken on August 9, 1945. (Use the magnifying glass tool in the left of the tool bar to enlarge the photo.) The legend in the upper right provides the key for the graphic colors -- buildings in the area in red were totally collapsed and burned, those in the pink area were totally collapsed, those in the yellow area were half collapsed and burned / irreparably damaged. The area of irreparable damage extended out as far as 4 kilometers and beyond. Between the blast damage and the ensuing fires, the devastation of Hiroshima was essentially total.

  • Thumbnail for Hiroshima: Peace Memorial Museum, Immediate effects of blast and heat on physical objects, 04.  Melted ceramic roof tiles.
    Hiroshima: Peace Memorial Museum, Immediate effects of blast and heat on physical objects, 04. Melted ceramic roof tiles.

    The heat of the fire partially melted these tiles and fused them like a lump of lava. Tiles melt at 1,200 to 1,300 degrees C. Thus, these fused roof tiles reveal how extremely hot the fire was.