This paper uses DHS sample data on Swaziland to investigate the relationship between education and health by focusing on education level (defined by number of years of schooling) and quality of HIV/AIDS knowledge and their effects on risky sexual behavior. An ordered probit model is used to address the quality of HIV/AIDS knowledge, using a 4 level scale, where knowledge ranges from zero/no knowledge to excellent knowledge. A regular probit model is used to analyze the effect of the quality of HIV/AIDS knowledge on various factors used as a measure of risky sexual behavior. The main findings are that the education level is positively correlated to the quality of HIV/AIDS knowledge. Yet, a higher quality of HIV/AIDS knowledge does not always result in safe sexual behaviors. It does not influence the likelihood of having multiple sexual partners in a statistically significant way, but does increase the likelihood of condom use.
Eva McGeehan is a member of, and one of the founding co-presidents of, the Colorado Springs PFLAG chapter. She was interviewed for the LGBT Oral History project between 2011 and 2012.
Bruce Loeffler received a B.S. in Chemistry from Harvey Mudd College. He did graduate work at M.I.T. and Harvard and ultimately received his Ph.D. in Geology from the University of Colorado, Boulder. He taught Geology at Colorado College from 1977 to 1999. He participated in the LGBT Oral History project via a written exchange with Andrew Wallace between September 20th and October 5th in 2011.
The HIV/AIDS epidemic is one of the greatest challenges facing economic and social development in sub-Saharan Africa. Women of reproductive age (15-49) have the greatest risk and prevalence of HIV in this region. Increased female vulnerability to HIV stems from limited access to health care and lack of autonomy to make decisions regarding sexual health and education. Using Demographic and Health Surveys data from nine sub-Saharan African countries, this paper found several key determinants in women’s empowerment and HIV status. Women who know more about sexual health knowledge in terms of contraceptive methods, fertility, and sexually transmitted diseases are more likely to be empowered than women with no understanding of sexual health. Similarly, women who are empowered are less likely to be HIV positive. This paper has important implications for future policies aiming to lower HIV incidence and improve women’s rights in sub-Saharan Africa.
From its earliest stages, the rhetoric of India’s HIV/AIDS discourse has maintained an explicit focus on transmission through contact with high-risk groups (i.e. migrant workers, sex workers, homosexuals, and intravenous drug users). India's intense focus on high-risk groups, and primary focus on the commercial sex work industry in HIV/AIDS research and prevention strategies exhibits critical voids in the academic literature, scholarship, and discourse surrounding the subject. Over the course of this research study I spent several months interviewing sex workers in Pune, India to gain a better understanding of the circumstances and social factors that contribute to women's involvement and participation in sex work and the sex work industry. Using my interviews, experiences in the red light district, and academic research on India's HIV/AIDS discourse I have attempted to highlight the uncritical use of the term “high-risk” in the rhetoric of India's HIV/AIDS discourse and to bring attention to the underlying social factors that create, maintain, and perpetuate entry into the sex work industry in India. The central focus of this research study is to displace female sex workers as the “vectors”, in epidemiological terms, of HIV/AIDS (Kadiyala and Barnett 2004: 1888) and highlight India’s patriarchal social structures that result in gender inequality and economic vulnerability for women as the social forces that lead women to participate in the commercial sex work industry, and hence to participate in high-risk behaviors and a high-risk industry that is significant in the spread of HIV/AIDS in India.
This paper aims to understand the AIDS concern in India by analyzing two different relations. The first model studies the effect of media sources such as newspapers, radios and television on AIDS-related knowledge among Indian men and women using a twostage hurdle model. The second model looks at the effect of AIDS-related knowledge on the sexual behavior of Indians using the Probit analysis. Both these relationships hint towards the possible problems faced by AIDS campaigns and government programs in combating the HIV epidemic in India. The effect of media in promoting AIDS education, even though statistically significant, is minimal. Moreover, the effect of AIDS knowledge on sexual behavior is very disturbing. Women have insignificant control over their sexual behavior despite their improved knowledge levels. Moreover, men's behavior is barely influenced by their knowledge levels. Thus, increasing AIDS knowledge among Indians is only one of the several crucial steps in controlling the HIV/AIDS epidemic. However, the success of AIDS campaigns and other programs also depend on factors such as improved education levels, better job conditions, enhanced livelihood, and additional resources for the country's healthcare.
Karl Jeffries came to Colorado College from a small town in Southern Colorado in 1987 and graduated in 1991. He was diagnosed with HIV shortly after graduation and now lives in Berkeley, California with his partner and two kids. Karl was interviewed for the LGBT Oral History project during his visit for homecoming weekend on October 16, 2011.
Virginia “Ginger” Morgan graduated from Colorado College in 1986. She received Masters in Theological Studies from Vanderbilt. She was Assistant Director of Admission at Colorado College from 1987-1990, Associate Chaplain (and Acting Chaplain) from 1990-2005, and Associate Dean of Students 2005-2012. She was interviewed for the LGBT Oral History project on May 17 2012.
Nathan Bower graduated from the College of Wooster in 1973 and received a Ph.D. in Chemistry from Oregon State University in 1977. He taught Chemistry at Colorado College for forty years, from 1977 until his retirement in 2017. He was interviewed for the the LGBT Oral History project on December 9, 2011.
In the 1980s, the appearance of AIDS in urban centers of the United States unleashed a strong, and often condemnatory reaction from outspoken conservative Christians. With their digital and human networks, the fundamentalists used biblical and medieval rhetoric that stressed the intersection of sin and disease to enforce the idea that AIDS was a divine retribution for the behavior of gay men. Founded on premillennialism, biblical infallibility and the protestant sense of purpose, fundamentalists view America as sacred, susceptible and in rapid decline. In part because of these factors, fundamentalism has been inclined to create narratives of immanent demise to explain historical events. Their messages on AIDS were powerful and tapped into preexisting cultural anxieties around sex, illness and death. Unlike the trajectory of other diseases that had been interpreted as religion to promote the notion of sin, the fundamentalist construction of AIDS was countered by C. Everett Koop, the surgeon general of the United States, who followed his evangelical faith and used his position of power to change the course of the illness’ presence in America. By shifting the focus from asking why to saving lives, C. Everett Koop’s radical faith-based action began to re-write the cultural perception of AIDS. In this process, Koop stayed true to his two faiths, medicine and evangelical Christianity, and proceeded to discredit centuries of moralizing on illness as divine retribution. His disruption created the necessary foundation for serious action being taken to resolve the AIDS crisis. In providing factual information about the disease, allowed space for more moderate religious bodies and secular movements, such as ACT UP, to enter the public discourse, humanize the sick, and call America to action on finding a cure for AIDS.