Developed in 1996, antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) revolutionized the treatment of HIV/AIDS by transitioning the disease from a death sentence to a treatable chronic condition. The percentage of HIV positive people with access to antiretroviral treatment was considerably low until 2005, when it began to steadily increase. Despite this growth, only 36% of people living with HIV underwent ARV therapy treatment in 2009. There is widespread disagreement over the role that intellectual property rights play in restricting access to ARVs, with some arguing that it plays a primary role and some arguing that it’s inconsequential. This study aims to reconcile these differences of opinion by considering the influence of intellectual property rights, lack of infrastructure, and government corruption on ARV therapy coverage in low and upper-middle income countries. The results suggest that countries with stronger intellectual property rights have improved ARV accessibility, and that intellectual property rights are highly correlated with infrastructure.
The spread of HIV and AIDS and risky sexual behavior continues to be a problem in Sub-Saharan African countries despite government measures to educate people on the risk and severity of the disease and measures to promote safe sex practices such as making condoms readily available at reduced or no cost. We examine whether people decide to engage in risky sexual behavior due to low income and low life expectancy. Sub-Saharan Africa is characterized by conditions that signicantly reduce life expectancy such as unsanitary conditions prevalent in poverty stricken areas, inaccessibility to health care, and dangerous working conditions such as those in very poor mining regions. Moreover, since income per capita in these countries is very low, the opportunity cost associated with dying from AIDS and foregoing future consumption is very low. We examine how a government provided life insurance benet may be an effective means of deterring risky sexual behavior. To evaluate this policy prescription we develop a life-cycle model with personal and family consumption and endogenous probability of survival. In the model, agents can receive life insurance benets if their death is not the result of AIDS. We demonstrate that excessive risky behavior does result from low life expectancy and low levels of income and illustrate the conditions for which the life insurance benet can replicate the effects of higher income and life expectancy, deterring risky sexual behavior and reducing the spread of HIV/AIDS.
SUPERANDO ESTIGMAS: REPRESENTACIONES DEL SIDA EN LA POESÍA DE CODESAL El SIDA es una enfermedad tanto medical como social gracias a su duración sin tratamiento y es marcado por estigmas perjudiciales. Al explorar los orígenes de la estigmatización y tratar de rechazar los estigmas, este estudio indica las esfuerzas de autores y artistas que ya existen para refutar el daño causado por las respuestas sociales, y también intercede en el discurso del SIDA en construir un nuevo lenguaje a través de una comparación multicultural que destaca las diferencias (o similitudes) entre España y los Estados Unidos. Entonces, es necesario hacer un análisis literario de Feliz humo de Javier Codesal, además de una critica artística del arte y de las películas de Pepe Miralles, Pepe Espaliú, Javier Codesal, y Hervé Guibert. También, será útil traducir fragmentos de Feliz humo para incorporar elementos interculturales. La relevancia del SIDA y su lenguaje tienen fundación en el hecho de que, aunque ha sido progreso científico, todavía exista respuestas sociales premodernas. ------------ OVERCOMING STIGMA: REPRESENTATIONS OF AIDS IN THE POETRY OF CODESAL AIDS is a medical as well as a social disease due to its duration without treatment and is marked by harmful stigmas. By exploring the origins of stigmatization and trying to reject stigmas, this study indicates the efforts of authors and artists that already exist to refute the harm caused by social responses, and also intercedes in the discourse of AIDS to build a new language to through a multicultural comparison that highlights the differences (or similarities) between Spain and the United States. It is necessary to incorporate a literary analysis of Javier Codesal's Feliz humo, as well as an artistic critique of the art and films of Pepe Miralles, Pepe Espaliú, Javier Codesal, and Hervé Guibert. Also, it will be useful to translate fragments of Feliz humo to incorporate intercultural elements. The relevance of AIDS and its language are based on the fact that, although there has been scientific progress, there are still pre-modern social responses.
This paper aims to better understand the role of media in the understanding of HIV in Nepal. This paper uses a compiled probit regression to understand the effect media such as newspapers, radio, and television plays upon the six factors relating to HIV attitudes and awareness on how it spreads This is done separately for men and women. This study uses the DHS data from 2011 for Nepal. Access to media has an effect of between 1% and 32% on HIV related knowledge. This provides an insight on how to reduce its spread effectively in Nepal.