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  • Thumbnail for View of the Earth - detail
    View of the Earth - detail

    Colored ink or paint on paper, 12 3/4 inch circle. Detail of interior circle with inscription describing the various 'seas' that move outward from the central image.

  • Thumbnail for Santali tribal figure of Shiva, base for Kali figure - detail
    Santali tribal figure of Shiva, base for Kali figure - detail

    Cast bronze with gilding, 25 x 9.25 inches. Santali refers to tribal groups; sometimes it is used to mean tribes of a certain region, but it is also used generically to reference tribals, that is, indigenous Indian peoples who were never fully assimilated into Hindu India. In this sense, images such as these are relevant to discussions of the caste or varna system of South Asia and the official government policy of reservation for Untouchables, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes that formed a part of the Constitution of the Republic of India. This is comparable to what in the US would be called Affirmative Action, but with much more specific initiatives. The notion that there are indigenous peoples of India who are regarded as having inhabited the subcontinent prior to the appearance of the Aryan tribes who brought their Sanskritic traditions can provide provocative possibilities for discussion in a range of disciplines (Religious Studies, Anthropology, Sociology, History, Art History). These are relatively large (Ganesha is over 3 ft. in height; Siva-Kali about 2 feet) and quite handsome pieces which follow more or less standard Hindu iconographic schemes (the Hindu deities Siva, Kali, Ganesha) but in style depart from the styles of sculpture practiced in Hindu states and courts. Thus they lend themselves to discussions of standard Hindu iconography as well as to the nature of tribal traditions in South Asia; they could also generate interesting discussions of 'classical' versus 'tribal' in Asian art: what makes a work 'folk' art (that is, its origin, its makers or patrons, its formal qualities?). And how have these traditions come to intersect and interact in the last century? While these are designated as 19th century they may in fact be more recent in manufacture.

  • Thumbnail for Standing female figure wearing skirt and headdress - closeup view
    Standing female figure wearing skirt and headdress - closeup view

    Wood-carved with added white paint.This handsome figure is another Manderman folk piece. She seems to most closely resemble what are often called bhuta figures from 19th-20th-century Karnataka. Bhuta is another term that is used in various ways; in the orthodox tradition it has meaning associated with ghosts, with evil forces, with potentially malevolent spirits. Bhuta has been used as a term to signify those malevolent spritis outside the orthodox traditions of Hinduism and thus has also come to signifiy, more generically, folk deities, powerful forces outside the pantheon of the Hindu tradition; but in this sense these are not necessarily malevolent or destructive; rather they are beings/ forces/ spirits of limited and often highly localized powers. What this figure shares with other Karnataka figures that have been termed bhutas are the material and general form: she is made of wood, rather simply carved, with a strongly stylized, geometric body. Her body is contructed of a series of geometric shapes, with tubular arms, a cylindrical trunk pinched at the waist, her face strongly circular with large ears that project at a direct perpendicular from the cheeks. The details of the face are simplified in a manner that is shared with the marble Jina. There are several details that set this figure apart from better-known so-called bhutas from Karnataka: she seems to wear a garment that covers her upper body, a feature quite unusual in the depiction of females in Indian art in general and in typical bhutas from Karnataka, in which the upper body is also usually nude except for jewelry; her skirt falls in wide gores with only a few folds, while in most bhuta figures from Karnataka the skirt is rendered in a continuous series of thin folds that create a more detailed pattern of vertical forms along the lower body; and rarely are typical Karnataka bhutas painted, as this figure is. Further research may suggest a different provenance, as wooden 'folk' figures hail from many regions.

  • Thumbnail for Hindu Temple
    Hindu Temple by Anonymous

    Folk Painting, probably from Orissa, perhaps from the Krisna Jagannath Temple in Puri. The verso has a false attribution to the famous modern painter Jamini Roy; colors on paper.

  • Thumbnail for Dasavataras, Visnu's ten incarnations - one of set of ten
  • Thumbnail for View of the Earth
    View of the Earth

    Colored ink and paint on paper, 12 3/4 inch circle with interior concentric circles of varying colors. Mandala-type image with central image made of tripartite grouping of images in a palatial setting.

  • Thumbnail for Maid Servant Holding Up a Mirror to Her Mistress
    Maid Servant Holding Up a Mirror to Her Mistress

    From Kota (Rajastan); ink and opaque color on paper; 7 7/8in. x 5 3/8in. (19.8cm. x 13.5cm.) This precisely painted, sensual and intimate image is an excellent example of the Rajput painting style that developed out of a highly Mughalized idiom. The finely detailed features of the two figures and the refined comforts of this palace terrace scene allow great insight into the precious world of the Indian nobility. This leaf is an illustration to a Ragamala: Biawal Ragini of Hindola Raga.

  • Thumbnail for Seated Jain statue as displayed
    Seated Jain statue as displayed

    Marble with details painted in black, gold and blue. 19 x 15 inches. This figure, of fine quality, represents a type seen often in Jain art and frequently found in western collections. This image depicts a Jina (victor) that is religious ideal of Jain religion: this is one who is victorious over death, who has achieved spiritual knowledge--similar to the Buddha. They are also known as Tirthankara (Ford Crosser)--that is, one who has crossed to the other side (that is, beyond death). Jains recognize 24 Tirthankaras; the twenty-fourth lived at about the same time as the Buddha and thus was part of same intellectual-spiritual milieu that gave rise to Buddhism. Just as Jains accept many of same principles as Buddhists, the earliest images of Jinas arose in the same time and place as the earliest Budda images. Jinas resemble Buddhas to a great degree: shown in meditation and in yogic posture; Jinas, however, are depicted nude (unlike Buddhas)--'sky clad' being indicative of practice of extreme asceticism. Standing Jinas are always depicted stiffly upright, with unbending posture; in the Jina this distinctive posture communicates the unwavering intent and practice of his austerities, of his spiritual focus.

  • Thumbnail for Pair of Roof Brackets
    Pair of Roof Brackets

    From South India,teak wood. 26†x 3.5†x 9.5â€

  • Thumbnail for Santali tribal figure of Kali, for Shiva base - view from above
    Santali tribal figure of Kali, for Shiva base - view from above

    Cast bronze with gilding;20 x 7 inches. Santali refers to tribal groups; sometimes it is used to mean tribes of a certain region, but it is also used generically to reference tribals, that is, indigenous Indian peoples who were never fully assimilated into Hindu India. In this sense, images such as these are relevant to discussions of the caste or varna system of South Asia and the official government policy of reservation for Untouchables, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes that formed a part of the Constitution of the Republic of India. This is comparable to what in the US would be called Affirmative Action, but with much more specific initiatives. The notion that there are indigenous peoples of India who are regarded as having inhabited the subcontinent prior to the appearance of the Aryan tribes who brought their Sanskritic traditions can provide provocative possibilities for discussion in a range of disciplines (Religious Studies, Anthropology, Sociology, History, Art History). These are relatively large (Ganesha is over 3 ft. in height; Siva-Kali about 2 feet) and quite handsome pieces which follow more or less standard Hindu iconographic schemes (the Hindu deities Siva, Kali, Ganesha) but in style depart from the styles of sculpture practiced in Hindu states and courts. Thus they lend themselves to discussions of standard Hindu iconography as well as to the nature of tribal traditions in South Asia; they could also generate interesting discussions of 'classical' versus 'tribal' in Asian art: what makes a work 'folk' art (that is, its origin, its makers or patrons, its formal qualities?). And how have these traditions come to intersect and interact in the last century? While these are designated as 19th century they may in fact be more recent in manufacture.

  • Thumbnail for Nautch scene with three women
    Nautch scene with three women

    Punjabi school, made for export to the West; gouache on paper. 6.75†x 4.5â€

  • Thumbnail for Linga and yoni
    Linga and yoni by Unknown

    The linga is 23 cm h x 16 cm wide, and the yoni is 15 cm wide. The linga and yoni represent the male and female sex reunited. The linga represents the divine phallus of Shiva and stands erect from the yoni. Stone, possibly marble.

  • Thumbnail for Woman Playing Sitar with Hills and City in the Background
    Woman Playing Sitar with Hills and City in the Background by Unknown

    Paint on paper; 9 15/16 x 13 3/16 inches.

  • Thumbnail for The Teacher of Rama
    The Teacher of Rama by Unknown

    Paint on paper; 9 15/16 x 13 3/16 inches.

  • Thumbnail for Dasavataras, Visnu's ten incarnations - one of set of ten
  • Thumbnail for The God of Pulior - Ganesha image
    The God of Pulior - Ganesha image

    Roughly carved figure of the Hindu god, Ganesha. Wood, 6 x 3 x 1 1/2 inches, from the Madura Mission.

  • Thumbnail for Kashmiri Illustrated manuscript about Vishnu (and his Krishna incarnation) (illustration)
    Kashmiri Illustrated manuscript about Vishnu (and his Krishna incarnation) (illustration)

    Book manuscript; ink, colors, and gold on paper. Ohio State University Professor Susan Huntington notes that this is probably a 19th century piece. She notes that it is actually a very nice example with later paintings and manuscripts just now gaining favor compared with older materials.

  • Thumbnail for Kashmiri Illustrated manuscript about Vishnu (and his Krishna incarnation) (text 1)
    Kashmiri Illustrated manuscript about Vishnu (and his Krishna incarnation) (text 1)

    Book manuscript; ink, colors, and gold on paper. Ohio State University Professor Susan Huntington notes that this is probably a 19th century piece. She notes that it is actually a very nice example with later paintings and manuscripts just now gaining favor compared with the older materials.

  • Thumbnail for Patta - Jain cosmological image
    Patta - Jain cosmological image

    From Gujarat/Rajastan; ink and colors on cloth; 63 1/2in. x 64 1/8in. (152.2cm. x 163.5cm.) This elaborate and easily readable painted image illustrates the cosmological beliefs of the Jain religion. Essentially the patta is a representation of the creation of the mortal realm. Brightly colored concentric circles superimposed upon meandering streams, figures and texts create a vivid picture of the world as visualized by Jain philosophers in their complex oral and written discourses.

  • Thumbnail for Santali tribal figure of Kali, for Shiva base
    Santali tribal figure of Kali, for Shiva base

    Cast bronze with gilding, 20 x 7 inches. Santali refers to tribal groups; sometimes it is used to mean tribes of a certain region, but it is also used generically to reference tribals, that is, indigenous Indian peoples who were never fully assimilated into Hindu India. In this sense, images such as these are relevant to discussions of the caste or varna system of South Asia and the official government policy of reservation for Untouchables, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes that formed a part of the Constitution of the Republic of India. This is comparable to what in the US would be called Affirmative Action, but with much more specific initiatives. The notion that there are indigenous peoples of India who are regarded as having inhabited the subcontinent prior to the appearance of the Aryan tribes who brought their Sanskritic traditions can provide provocative possibilities for discussion in a range of disciplines (Religious Studies, Anthropology, Sociology, History, Art History). These are relatively large (Ganesha is over 3 ft. in height; Siva-Kali about 2 feet) and quite handsome pieces which follow more or less standard Hindu iconographic schemes (the Hindu deities Siva, Kali, Ganesha) but in style depart from the styles of sculpture practiced in Hindu states and courts. Thus they lend themselves to discussions of standard Hindu iconography as well as to the nature of tribal traditions in South Asia; they could also generate interesting discussions of 'classical' versus 'tribal' in Asian art: what makes a work' folk' art (that is, its origin, its makers or patrons, its formal qualities?). And how have tribal and classical traditions come to intersect and interact in the last century? While these are designated as 19th century they may in fact be more recent in manufacture.

  • Thumbnail for Santali tribal figure of Shiva, base for Kali figure
    Santali tribal figure of Shiva, base for Kali figure

    Cast bronze with gilding, 25 x 9.25 inches. Santali refers to tribal groups; sometimes it is used to mean tribes of a certain region, but it is also used generically to reference tribals, that is, indigenous Indian peoples who were never fully assimilated into Hindu India. In this sense, images such as these are relevant to discussions of the caste or varna system of South Asia and the official government policy of reservation for Untouchables, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes that formed a part of the Constitution of the Republic of India. This is comparable to what in the US would be called Affirmative Action, but with much more specific initiatives. The notion that there are indigenous peoples of India who are regarded as having inhabited the subcontinent prior to the appearance of the Aryan tribes who brought their Sanskritic traditions can provide provocative possibilities for discussion in a range of disciplines (Religious Studies, Anthropology, Sociology, History, Art History). These are relatively large (Ganesha is over 3 ft. in height; Siva-Kali about 2 feet) and quite handsome pieces which follow more or less standard Hindu iconographic schemes (the Hindu deities Siva, Kali, Ganesha) but in style depart from the styles of sculpture practiced in Hindu states and courts. Thus they lend themselves to discussions of standard Hindu iconography as well as to the nature of tribal traditions in South Asia; they could also generate interesting discussions of 'classical' versus 'tribal' in Asian art: what makes a work 'folk' art (that is, its origin, its makers or patrons, its formal qualities?). And how have these traditions come to intersect and interact in the last century? While these are designated as 19th century they may in fact be more recent in manufacture.

  • Thumbnail for Seated Jain statue - side view
    Seated Jain statue - side view

    Marble with details painted in black, gold and blue.19 x 15 inches. This figure, of fine quality, represents a type seen often in Jain art and frequently found in western collections. This image depicts a Jina (victor) that is religious ideal of Jain religion: this is one who is victorious over death, who has achieved spiritual knowledge--similar to the Buddha. They are also known as Tirthankara (Ford Crosser)--that is, one who has crossed to the other side (that is, beyond death). Jains recognize 24 Tirthankaras; the twenty-fourth lived at about the same time as the Buddha and thus was part of same intellectual-spiritual milieu that gave rise to Buddhism. Just as Jains accept many of same principles as Buddhists, the earliest images of Jinas arose in the same time and place as the earliest Budda images. Jinas resemble Buddhas to a great degree: shown in meditation and in yogic posture; Jinas, however, are depicted nude (unlike Buddhas)--'sky clad' being indicative of practice of extreme asceticism. Standing Jinas are always depicted stiffly upright, with unbending posture; in the Jina this distinctive posture communicates the unwavering intent and practice of his austerities, of his spiritual focus.

  • Thumbnail for Seated Jain statue
    Seated Jain statue

    Marble with details painted in black, gold and blue; 19 x 15 inches. This figure, of fine quality, represents a type seen often in Jain art and frequently found in western collections. It is valuable to include Jain images, as students will easily recognize that this image seems closely related to Buddha images--and indeed it represents a similar renunciant type. But there are several clues to its difference. This image depicts a Jina (victor) that is religious ideal of Jain religion: this is one who is victorious over death, who has achieved spiritual knowledge--similar to the Buddha. They are also known as Tirthankara (Ford Crosser)--that is, one who has crossed to the other side (that is, beyond death). Jains recognize 24 Tirthankaras; the twenty-fourth lived at about the same time as the Buddha and thus was part of same intellectual-spiritual milieu that gave rise to Buddhism. Just as Jains accept many of same principles as Buddhists, the earliest images of Jinas arose in the same time and place as the earliest Budda images. Jinas resemble Buddhas to a great degree: shown in meditation and in yogic posture; Jinas, however, are depicted nude (unlike Buddhas)--'sky clad' being indicative of practice of extreme asceticism. Standing Jinas are always depicted stiffly upright, with unbending posture; in the Jina this distinctive posture communicates the unwavering intent and practice of his austerities, of his spiritual focus.

  • Thumbnail for Standing female figure wearing skirt and headdress
    Standing female figure wearing skirt and headdress

    Wood-carved with added white paint. This handsome figure is another Manderman folk piece. She seems to most closely resemble what are often called bhuta figures from 19th-20th-century Karnataka. Bhuta is another term that is used in various ways; in the orthodox tradition it has meaning associated with ghosts, with evil forces, with potentially malevolent spirits. Bhuta has been used as a term to signify those malevolent spritis outside the orthodox traditions of Hinduism and thus has also come to signifiy, more generically, folk deities, powerful forces outside the pantheon of the Hindu tradition; but in this sense these are not necessarily malevolent or destructive; rather they are beings/ forces/ spirits of limited and often highly localized powers. What this figure shares with other Karnataka figures that have been termed bhutas are the material and general form: she is made of wood, rather simply carved, with a strongly stylized, geometric body. Her body is contructed of a series of geometric shapes, with tubular arms, a cylindrical trunk pinched at the waist, her face strongly circular with large ears that project at a direct perpendicular from the cheeks. The details of the face are simplified in a manner that is shared with the marble Jina. There are several details that set this figure apart from better-known so-called bhutas from Karnataka: she seems to wear a garment that covers her upper body, a feature quite unusual in the depiction of females in Indian art in general and in typical bhutas from Karnataka, in which the upper body is also usually nude except for jewelry; her skirt falls in wide gores with only a few folds, while in most bhuta figures from Karnataka the skirt is rendered in a continuous series of thin folds that create a more detailed pattern of vertical forms along the lower body; and rarely are typical Karnataka bhutas painted, as this figure is. Further research may suggest a different provenance, as wooden 'folk' figures hail from many regions.

  • Thumbnail for Embroidered Sindhi table covering
    Embroidered Sindhi table covering

    55†x 73.5â€