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  • Thumbnail for Singapore Sling
    Singapore Sling

    The iconic Singapore Sling was invented at the Raffles Hotel.

  • Thumbnail for Japanese Ichimatsu Doll in Blue Kimono - back view
    Japanese Ichimatsu Doll in Blue Kimono - back view

    Ichimatsu doll, 22†with human hair, glass eyes, and working wooden fan and joined limbs. Named after Sanogawa Ichimatsu, an 18th c. Kabuki actor who specialized in female roles, Ichimatsu dolls are an Edo (Tokyo) invention. They portray little Japanese girls and boys in their holiday silk kimonos and are sometimes commissioned by the rich as portraits of their children. The dolls are display objects, not toys, and are usually kept in a glass box. They can range in size from 5†to 30†and are especially valuable if triple jointed. A subcategory of Ichimatsu Dolls that is of particular interest to Berea College is the torei-ningyo or Friendship Doll. These are Ichimatsu dolls have their origins in the attempt by the Reverend Sidney L. Gulick to amend bad feelings in Japan created by the Exclusion Act of 1924, which denied immigration and citizenship rights to persons of Chinese and Japanese descent. Gulick, who knew Francis Hutchins, hit on the idea of sending “blue-eyed dolls†as ambassadors of friendship. He managed to have 12,379 sent to Japan by 1927. The dolls were very favorably received and in return, 58 large Ichimatsu dolls were commissioned from such noted doll-makers as Hirata Goyo to represent the Imperial Household, the 6 largest cities, the individual prefectures, and the Japanese territories of Korea, Taiwan, and Manchuria. Each Friendship Doll was furnished with accessories, including lacquered furniture, tea sets, lanterns, folding screens, parasols, geta (raised wood sandals), and other personal ornaments, not to mention passports. The friendship dolls sailed to America in 1927. They toured the country and were then given to museums, libraries and other appropriate institutions that had children’s departments, with Miss Japan going to the Smithsonian Institution. (See Sidney L. Gulick, Dolls of Friendship: The Story of a Goodwill Project between the Children of America and Japan, Friendship Press, NY: 1927.) Many Friendship Dolls are now lost or forgotten, though efforts are being made to find the original group and some have even returned to Japan for restoration, arriving there to great local fanfare. In addition, Gulick’s grandson, Sidney L. Gulick III, continues to send dolls to Japan.

  • Thumbnail for Kozuka, detail of monkey design
    Kozuka, detail of monkey design

    Kozuka detail, mottled metal with respousse in gold and black. Design: monkey with horse on opposite side. Sheath for challenge knife (kozuka). Blackened steel and gold. Very fine workmanship and in excellent condition. This metal sheath is one of 16 in a two-layered lacquer box. Making sword fittings (menuki) has been an Art in Japan since the time of the machishu, the 17th c. Kyoto, Osaka, Sakai predecessors of the chonin of Edo (now Tokyo), the latter being the creators of Ukiyo-e. This sheath is of extremely high quality, something true of others in its group. Any are fit for a museum, but I chose this one because its decoration was so amusing. In Japan, the horse is a standard gift to a temple. When a horse is too expensive, a painting of a horse (ema) can be substituted. This knife sheath bears an image of an ema on one side. The square frame of the ema is shown and within it, a monkey holding a long line. The line goes outside the ema over to the other side of the sheath. There, the tethered horse gallops away.

  • Thumbnail for Photo Album of Osaka and Kobe with Gold Lacquer Decorated Cover (cover view)
    Photo Album of Osaka and Kobe with Gold Lacquer Decorated Cover (cover view)

    H: 10.75", W: 14", D: 2.25". Relief design of geese and flora with stream on front; Ivory and mother-of-pearl inlay; back decorated with insects and plants in gold leather spine; hand tinted photographs of places, mainly in Osaka and Kobe, Japan; Inside inscription reads: "Presented to N.W. Utley and Wife by Rev. C.B. Moseley; Aug 9, 1890, Kobe, Japan."

  • Thumbnail for Gold Lacquer Inro with Ivory Netsuke - back view
    Gold Lacquer Inro with Ivory Netsuke - back view

    H: 6 cm W: 5 cm L: 1.8 cm D: of netsuke 4.2 cm Gold lacquer inro with overlay design in mother of pearl and shakudo Design: flying cranes. Ivory netsuke: turtle and toad; signed inside. Cover: Korin

  • Thumbnail for Another side of the Hawker Centre
    Another side of the Hawker Centre

    The back of this Hawker Centre has a market for fresh food.

  • Thumbnail for Raffles Hotel
    Raffles Hotel

    Diners in the courtyard of the famous Raffles Hotel.

  • Thumbnail for Preparing food
    Preparing food

    Preparing a dish from this fish ball stand.

  • Thumbnail for Japanese Ichimatsu Doll in Blue Kimono - face detail
    Japanese Ichimatsu Doll in Blue Kimono - face detail

    Ichimatsu doll, 22†with human hair, glass eyes, and working wooden fan and joined limbs. Named after Sanogawa Ichimatsu, an 18th c. Kabuki actor who specialized in female roles, Ichimatsu dolls are an Edo (Tokyo) invention. They portray little Japanese girls and boys in their holiday silk kimonos and are sometimes commissioned by the rich as portraits of their children. The dolls are display objects, not toys, and are usually kept in a glass box. They can range in size from 5†to 30†and are especially valuable if triple jointed. A subcategory of Ichimatsu Dolls that is of particular interest to Berea College is the torei-ningyo or Friendship Doll. These are Ichimatsu dolls have their origins in the attempt by the Reverend Sidney L. Gulick to amend bad feelings in Japan created by the Exclusion Act of 1924, which denied immigration and citizenship rights to persons of Chinese and Japanese descent. Gulick, who knew Francis Hutchins, hit on the idea of sending “blue-eyed dolls†as ambassadors of friendship. He managed to have 12,379 sent to Japan by 1927. The dolls were very favorably received and in return, 58 large Ichimatsu dolls were commissioned from such noted doll-makers as Hirata Goyo to represent the Imperial Household, the 6 largest cities, the individual prefectures, and the Japanese territories of Korea, Taiwan, and Manchuria. Each Friendship Doll was furnished with accessories, including lacquered furniture, tea sets, lanterns, folding screens, parasols, geta (raised wood sandals), and other personal ornaments, not to mention passports. The friendship dolls sailed to America in 1927. They toured the country and were then given to museums, libraries and other appropriate institutions that had children’s departments, with Miss Japan going to the Smithsonian Institution. (See Sidney L. Gulick, Dolls of Friendship: The Story of a Goodwill Project between the Children of America and Japan, Friendship Press, NY: 1927.) Many Friendship Dolls are now lost or forgotten, though efforts are being made to find the original group and some have even returned to Japan for restoration, arriving there to great local fanfare. In addition, Gulick’s grandson, Sidney L. Gulick III, continues to send dolls to Japan.

  • Thumbnail for Japanese Ichimatsu Doll in Blue Kimono - side view
    Japanese Ichimatsu Doll in Blue Kimono - side view

    Ichimatsu doll, 22†with human hair, glass eyes, and working wooden fan and joined limbs. Named after Sanogawa Ichimatsu, an 18th c. Kabuki actor who specialized in female roles, Ichimatsu dolls are an Edo (Tokyo) invention. They portray little Japanese girls and boys in their holiday silk kimonos and are sometimes commissioned by the rich as portraits of their children. The dolls are display objects, not toys, and are usually kept in a glass box. They can range in size from 5†to 30†and are especially valuable if triple jointed. A subcategory of Ichimatsu Dolls that is of particular interest to Berea College is the torei-ningyo or Friendship Doll. These are Ichimatsu dolls have their origins in the attempt by the Reverend Sidney L. Gulick to amend bad feelings in Japan created by the Exclusion Act of 1924, which denied immigration and citizenship rights to persons of Chinese and Japanese descent. Gulick, who knew Francis Hutchins, hit on the idea of sending “blue-eyed dolls†as ambassadors of friendship. He managed to have 12,379 sent to Japan by 1927. The dolls were very favorably received and in return, 58 large Ichimatsu dolls were commissioned from such noted doll-makers as Hirata Goyo to represent the Imperial Household, the 6 largest cities, the individual prefectures, and the Japanese territories of Korea, Taiwan, and Manchuria. Each Friendship Doll was furnished with accessories, including lacquered furniture, tea sets, lanterns, folding screens, parasols, geta (raised wood sandals), and other personal ornaments, not to mention passports. The friendship dolls sailed to America in 1927. They toured the country and were then given to museums, libraries and other appropriate institutions that had children’s departments, with Miss Japan going to the Smithsonian Institution. (See Sidney L. Gulick, Dolls of Friendship: The Story of a Goodwill Project between the Children of America and Japan, Friendship Press, NY: 1927.) Many Friendship Dolls are now lost or forgotten, though efforts are being made to find the original group and some have even returned to Japan for restoration, arriving there to great local fanfare. In addition, Gulick’s grandson, Sidney L. Gulick III, continues to send dolls to Japan.

  • Thumbnail for Black Japanese Helmet
    Black Japanese Helmet

    Helmet, black with gold 5-petal flower emblem, red underside. Japanese helmet of the type called jingasa, 12x 13 inches. Lacquered wood in excellent condition. During the Tokugawa period, a key means of social control were the great parades of warlords and their retainers going to and from the capital city of Edo, where they were required to spend every other year in attendance upon the Shogun. These “alternate attendance†(sankin kotai) processions, up to 4,000 strong in the case of the Maeda clan, had the effect of keeping the common people of Japan in awe of the warriors. “Alternate attendance†thus helped keep the peace, something that the Shogunate was so good at doing that there was no war for the 250 years of the Tokugawa reign. As the Pax Tokugawa continued on and on, however, the Shogun and his retainers became warriors who never went to war. The actual ability to fight thus became secondary to maintaining a fearsome image. As Herman Ooms puts it in his essay in Edo: Art in Japan, 1615-1868, form became norm, and image, more important than reality. It is just this process that transformed armor into Art. Armor in the late Tokugawa Period is all about image, a point quite clear in this helmet. The helmet purports to be covered with silk that parts to reveal rough steel plates held together with large, round rivets. In fact, the helmet is made entirely of a thin, light wood covered with a layer of lacquer and gilt.

  • Thumbnail for Gold Lacquer Inro with Ivory Netsuke - bottom view
    Gold Lacquer Inro with Ivory Netsuke - bottom view

    H: 6 cm W: 5 cm L: 1.8 cm D: of netsuke 4.2 cm. Gold lacquer inro with overlay design in mother of pearl and shakudo. Design: flying cranes. Ivory netsuke: turtle and toad; signed inside. Cover: Korin.

  • Thumbnail for Bronze Chinese Mirror - reverse side
    Bronze Chinese Mirror - reverse side

    H: 3/4" W: 5-1/8". Mirror, bronze disc with light green and yellow patina. Obverse: polished. Reverse: decorative outer edge, inscribed inner edge, center boss raised with hole to attach mirror to support; square container of light wood with sliding lid.

  • Thumbnail for No Durians Allowed
    No Durians Allowed

    Durians are banned in Hawker Centers because of their strong smell, which some love and some hate.

  • Thumbnail for Ice cream to go
    Ice cream to go

    A traditional way of selling ice cream.

  • Thumbnail for Street vendor
    Street vendor

    A vendor prepares roasted chestnuts.

  • Thumbnail for Japanese Ichimatsu Doll in Blue Kimono - side detail
    Japanese Ichimatsu Doll in Blue Kimono - side detail

    Ichimatsu doll, 22†with human hair, glass eyes, and working wooden fan and joined limbs. Named after Sanogawa Ichimatsu, an 18th c. Kabuki actor who specialized in female roles, Ichimatsu dolls are an Edo (Tokyo) invention. They portray little Japanese girls and boys in their holiday silk kimonos and are sometimes commissioned by the rich as portraits of their children. The dolls are display objects, not toys, and are usually kept in a glass box. They can range in size from 5†to 30†and are especially valuable if triple jointed. A subcategory of Ichimatsu Dolls that is of particular interest to Berea College is the torei-ningyo or Friendship Doll. These are Ichimatsu dolls have their origins in the attempt by the Reverend Sidney L. Gulick to amend bad feelings in Japan created by the Exclusion Act of 1924, which denied immigration and citizenship rights to persons of Chinese and Japanese descent. Gulick, who knew Francis Hutchins, hit on the idea of sending “blue-eyed dolls†as ambassadors of friendship. He managed to have 12,379 sent to Japan by 1927. The dolls were very favorably received and in return, 58 large Ichimatsu dolls were commissioned from such noted doll-makers as Hirata Goyo to represent the Imperial Household, the 6 largest cities, the individual prefectures, and the Japanese territories of Korea, Taiwan, and Manchuria. Each Friendship Doll was furnished with accessories, including lacquered furniture, tea sets, lanterns, folding screens, parasols, geta (raised wood sandals), and other personal ornaments, not to mention passports. The friendship dolls sailed to America in 1927. They toured the country and were then given to museums, libraries and other appropriate institutions that had children’s departments, with Miss Japan going to the Smithsonian Institution. (See Sidney L. Gulick, Dolls of Friendship: The Story of a Goodwill Project between the Children of America and Japan, Friendship Press, NY: 1927.) Many Friendship Dolls are now lost or forgotten, though efforts are being made to find the original group and some have even returned to Japan for restoration, arriving there to great local fanfare. In addition, Gulick’s grandson, Sidney L. Gulick III, continues to send dolls to Japan.

  • Thumbnail for Bronze Chinese Mirror
    Bronze Chinese Mirror

    H: 3/4" W: 5-1/8". Mirror, bronze disc with light green and yellow patina. Obverse: polished. Reverse: decorative outer edge, inscribed inner edge, center boss raised with hole to attach mirror to support; square container of light wood with sliding lid.

  • Thumbnail for Gold Lacquer Inro with Ivory Netsuke - front view
    Gold Lacquer Inro with Ivory Netsuke - front view

    H: 6 cm W: 5 cm L: 1.8 cm D: of netsuke 4.2 cm. Gold lacquer inro with overlay design in mother of pearl and shakudo. Design: flying cranes. Ivory netsuke: turtle and toad; signed inside. Cover: Korin

  • Thumbnail for Sixteen Sword Guards - Japanese term, tsuba
    Sixteen Sword Guards - Japanese term, tsuba

    Sixteen individual sword guards made of various materials.

  • Thumbnail for Black Japanese Helmet - underside view
    Black Japanese Helmet - underside view

    H: 13-1/4", W: 12" Helmet, black with gold 5-petal flower emblem, red underside. Japanese helmet of the type called jingasa, Tokugawa Period. Lacquered wood in excellent condition. During the Tokugawa period, a key means of social control were the great parades of warlords and their retainers going to and from the capital city of Edo, where they were required to spend every other year in attendance upon the Shogun. These “alternate attendance†(sankin kotai) processions, up to 4,000 strong in the case of the Maeda clan, had the effect of keeping the common people of Japan in awe of the warriors. “Alternate attendance†thus helped keep the peace, something that the Shogunate was so good at doing that there was no war for the 250 years of the Tokugawa reign. As the Pax Tokugawa continued on and on, however, the Shogun and his retainers became warriors who never went to war. The actual ability to fight thus became secondary to maintaining a fearsome image. As Herman Ooms puts it in his essay in Edo: Art in Japan, 1615-1868, form became norm, and image, more important than reality. It is just this process that transformed armor into Art. Armor in the late Tokugawa Period is all about image, a point quite clear in this helmet. The helmet purports to be covered with silk that parts to reveal rough steel plates held together with large, round rivets. In fact, the helmet is made entirely of a thin, light wood covered with a layer of lacquer and gilt.

  • Thumbnail for Sword Guard (Tsuba) with Octopus and Ape - reverse side
    Sword Guard (Tsuba) with Octopus and Ape - reverse side

    Sword guard (tsuba), signed Yoshinaga(?),and dated 1862. Curatorial files identify the work as in the Garyuken line of Nara Variation. Copper and brass. Excellent condition. This sword guard was part of a group of 20 in a three-layered lacquered wooden box. All are of high quality and this one was singled out only because of its large size and unusual decoration. The guard bears the image of an octopus attacking a monkey. The image is typical of late Tokugawa Period in being showy, with copper and brass highly polished and looking like gold. It is also a bit odd and unsettling. The sword guard has the quality that Gerald Figal calls “monstrous†(Civilization and Monsters, Spirits of Modernity in Meiji Japan, Durham and Loudon, 1999). As Figal points out, “monstrous†is a fair description, not only of Art in 19th c. Japan, but also of this chaotic, disturbed time. No less than the paintings or prints of Hokusai or the helmet discussed above, then, this sword guard captures well the spirit of its time.

  • Thumbnail for Fruit stand
    Fruit stand

    Shoppers look at produce from a fruit stand in Chinatown.

  • Thumbnail for Inside a Hawker Centre
    Inside a Hawker Centre

    Rows of food stands serving various dishes inside a typical Hawker Centre.

  • Thumbnail for Evening Sight of Shrine Entrance
    Evening Sight of Shrine Entrance by D. Mori

    Signed D. Mori, 12 x 19†watercolor painting, no date, excellent condition. The style of this painting would seem to place it in the Meiji Period, but with an attribution of this importance, more research is clearly needed. A Meiji date is indicated by the overall soft tone of the painting and the way in which forms blend into one another. The painting is thus reminiscent of the work of famous Insho Domoto (1891-1975), an example of whose work is in Union College. The softness of the lines in the painting in Berea College is a feature that a number of American Art educators found of interest in Japanese painting of the Meiji period. One such was Arthur Wesley Dow (1857-1922) author of Composition, Understanding Line: Notan and Color. The term notan is Japanese and refers to a design concept in which softening the line equates negative and positive compositional space. Dr. Foster, Professor History at Berea College, informs me that Dow is connected to Berea College. In addition, Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, William Howard Taft, and Woodrow Wilson are among the notable donors listed on the Berea College website. One does not normally think of these people as particularly involved with Japan, but all of them owned Ukiyo-e woodblock prints, these now in the collection of the Library of Congress. In addition, Francis S. Hutchins was President of Berea College from 1937 to 1967. Robert Hutchins (1899-1997) was President of the University of Chicago from 1929-1945 and Chancellor from 1945-1951. Robert Hutchins worked closely with programs such as “Great Ideas†originally created by William Rainey Harper I (1856-1906), who founded the school. Harper’s grandson Paul V. Harper (1915-2005) was Professor of Surgery and Radiology at the University of Chicago and taught Judo there. Indeed, Paul Harper’s wife, Phyllis, is recognized as one of the founders of women’s judo in this country. Thus, as Christine Guth has shown, there are sometimes surprising links between American intellectuals and Japan in the decades before WWI (see her: Longfellow’s Tattoos: Tourism, Collecting and Japan, University of Washington Press, 2004 and “Charles Longfellow and Okakura Kakuzo: Cultural Cross-Dressing in the Colonial Context,â€(Positions: East Asia Cultures Critique,Volume 8, Number 3, Winter 2000, pp. 605-636).