Accessibility of natural world in traditional Japanese building style. -- Over the centuries the constant threat of earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, floods and tsunami in Japan have produced a culture that emphasizes co-existence with nature rather than the more typical Western approach of trying to overcome or modify the natural world. It is, therefore, not surprising that traditional Japanese buildings have sliding panels that can be opened to allow the outside world to merge with that inside the building. The boundary between inside and outside becomes less well defined and the inside becomes almost an extension of the natural environment.
Kappazuri or katazome dyed stencil print, 5/80, 37 x 25 inches. There are 57 examples of the stencil-prints (kappazuri) of Watanabe Sadao in the Brauer Museum of Art. Watanabe is, perhaps, the most famous Christian-Japanese print master to date. Frances Blakemore states that "Watanabe's works are in collections from South Africa to Australia, from the Philippines to Europe." (Who's who in Modern Japanese Prints, p. 228). 23 institutions list examples of his work in their collections, including the Museums of Modern Art of Tokyo and New York, the Honolulu Academy of Arts, the British Museum, and the Haifa Museum. Ten of Watanabe's prints are on permanent display in the Vatican Museum of Modern Art. Watanabe also has had shows of his prints in the US, Japan, Brussels, the Netherlands, China, Germany, Denmark, and Indonesia. His work was included into the exhibition of Japanese prints at the Winter Olympics in Sapporo in 1972. Watanabe has won the prizes of the Folk Art Museum, the Japanese Print Association, and other prestigious bodies. He is holder of the coveted prize of the Kokuga sosaku kyokai, the organization that holds the Arts in Spring-Kokuten Exhibition that is such an important event in the world of modern art in Japan. The range in date, subject, and size of these prints means that the Watanabe Collection of the Brauer Museum of Art provides excellent coverage of this key Creative Print master, increasing its value for his study.
Avalanche scar, Mt. Iwate. -- This steep slope on Mt. Iwate has several avalanche scars marked by patches of bare rock and the absence of trees. Avalanches are most common where deep snow falls on steep slopes. In Japan, moisture-laden air masses from the surrounding oceans can produce very heavy snowfall in the mountains. This, combined with frequent earthquakes which can act as triggers, mean that avalanches are another natural hazard the Japanese have to contend with.
Rice fields, Kanto Plain (Japan's largest), near Narita Airport. -- The Kanto Plain is the largest of Japan's coastal lowland plains with an area of about 8,000 square miles (this is about equal to a square 70 miles on a side). The slide shows the multiple uses of flat land in Japan. Rice fields, gardens, roads, villages and towns and an international airport all compete for part of this lowland area.
The Colorado Alliance of Research Libraries was a pioneering library consortium that evolved from a small informal group of research library directors known as the Taskforce for Interlibrary Cooperation in the early 1970’s. Early projects including shared acquisitions funding, a union list of serials, and a shared public access catalog. Drawing upon published sources, unpublished primary sources and archival records, and personal interviews with early participants, the birth and early evolution of this organization is analyzed.
Typical steep mountain slopes susceptible to slides and falls, between Morioka and Miyako. -- The steep mountain slopes that characterize much of Japan, combined with a climate that causes periodic heavy, saturating rainfall, provide ideal sites for landslides. Near volcanoes, thick accumulations of loose, unconsolidated ash may turn to mudflows with the first significant rainfall. In addition, there are frequent earthquakes to shake unstable slopes and act as triggers for landslides. -- Many Japanese towns are located on flat land at the foot of steep slopes and landslide disasters have been numerous. Even if slides do not directly affect settlements, they may disrupt transportation and dam rivers in narrow valleys.
Climatic implications, rain, Ginza, Tokyo. -- Many Japanese rivers are short and have steep gradients flowing out of mountainous terrain. This assures that runoff from storms will be rapid, and where these rivers empty onto plains flash flooding may occur. Further adding to the flood hazard is a climate that periodically causes heavy rain over short periods of time. Rainfall of eight inches or more is not uncommon during the typhoon season, especially in southwestern Japan.
Coastal features, straight Pacific coast: wave-eroded sea cliffs, wave-cut terrace, Mizushirazaki. -- Japan has about 18,000 miles of coastline whose configuration differs from place to place depending upon the interaction between shoreline erosive processes and earth crustal movement. At Mizushirazaki, the trend of rocks and geological structures is nearly parallel with the coast resulting in a fairly straight coastline. (Compare this coastline with that shown in slide 1.19.) Waves are actively eroding and undercutting the base of sea cliffs causing them to collapse into the water. As the coastline retreats in this manner, a flat wave-cut bench is produced offshore a few feet below sea level. The flat surface covered with trees above the cliffs is an old wave-cut bench that has been uplifted above sea level by crustal movement. -- Notice the small beaches that have formed from sediment deposition in areas sheltered behind rock promontories.
Coastal features, deeply embayed Pacific coast, Yamada. -- The coastline at Yamada is irregular with large bays separated by mountainous promontories that jut into the sea. (Compare this coastline with the straight one shown in slide 1.18.) This kind of coastline can be produced where rocks and geological structures trend across the coastline so that shoreline erosion of weaker rocks produces bays while more resistant rocks are left as headlands and promontories. It can also result from submergence of a mountainous land surface where the flooded valleys form bays and the mountains stand above the sea.
The Colorado College yearbook, published 1900-2007, was known as The Pikes Peak Nugget from 1900-1941 and The Nugget or Colorado College Nugget afterward. Year on cover differs from title page in some years.
Mt. Iwate, near Morioka. -- Mt. Iwate, a potentially dangerous composite volcano, reminds us that the same geological processes that can cause widespread death and destruction also produce much of the natural beauty of Japan. Convergence of earth plates bends and breaks crustal rocks producing earthquakes in the process, but at the same time uplifts the surface to create spectacular mountains. Erupting volcanoes formed along these convergent boundaries lay waste to the landscape, yet also produce magnificent, graceful peaks like Mt. Fuji and Mt. Iwate. Wave action erodes coastlines, but also creates picturesque sea cliffs and stacks and magnificent indented shorelines. The same dynamic earth processes that created the Japanese Islands make them both dangerous and magnificent. In Japan, it is very difficult not be affected, both physically and emotionally, by the natural environment.
Volcanic presence, Mt. Fuji. -- Mt. Fuji is the largest, best known, and perhaps most beautiful of Japan's volcanoes, and like many of the others it is potentially dangerous. Primary hazards include explosive eruptions, pyroclastic flows of ash and burning gas capable of traveling at speeds up to seventy miles an hour, and lava flows. In the long run, however, secondary effects of eruptions may be even more devastating. Among these are crop and structural damage from the fall of volcanic ash, mudflows and landslides in thick piles of unstable ash, flooding caused by the damming of rivers by volcanic debris and lava flows, and even climatic change resulting from suspension of ash and dust in the atmosphere.
Horyuji Gate (AD 607), Nara, survivor of many earthquakes. -- This very old structure is persuasive evidence of the durability of wooden buildings during earthquakes. In its nearly 1,400 year history, it has survived countless earthquakes, emerging relatively unscathed because of the flex inherent in wooden structures.
Tsunami wall, Hiraiga. -- Tsunami are large waves caused by vertical displacement of sea water, usually resulting from submarine earthquakes. Destruction results when these waves wash over a shoreline. Their effects are greatest along irregular coastlines with bays that are broaden towards the ocean and narrow inland, such as the Pacific coast of Honshu. Japanese coasts have been affected by at least 72 tsunami in the last hundred years, and inundation heights up to 100 feet are not uncommon. -- Here a concrete wall has been erected in an attempt to protect the small fishing village of Hiraiga from at least small tsunami.
Incised valley and upland terrace, Tanohata. -- If stream erosion and lowering of a land surface exceeds the rate of uplift of that surface, topographic relief decreases. This reduces stream gradients and velocity and causes streams to begin shifting laterally creating floodplains and eventually broad, nearly flat surfaces. If uplift is subsequently renewed, relief and stream gradients to the sea increase, causing the streams to erode downward once again. This can produce stream valleys incised into remnant terraces of the old flat surface, as seen here. -- Similar topographic features are produced when flat, wave-eroded surfaces along a coastline are uplifted and then cut into by downcutting streams flowing to the new, lower shoreline.
Weathered granodiorite, Shirasakatage. -- In mountainous terrain weathered rock material, a major component of soil, is rapidly carried away downslope. The result is soil that is thin, poor and rocky. The eroded material may be deposited along a river farther downstream producing a floodplain, or it may be carried all the way to the sea. Because most Japanese rivers and streams are short and fast moving, much of the material goes to the sea. Agriculture is difficult in the mountainous parts of Japan because of steep slopes and poor soils, and much of this land remains covered by forest.
Urban population density, seismic risk, Pontocho Street, Kyoto. -- Earthquake hazards include not only initial ground shaking, but also fire from broken pipelines, downed electrical wires, damaged heating systems, etc. In crowded Japanese cities with narrow streets and many old wooden buildings, such as this, fire can spread rapidly, and with broken water pipes and debris-filled streets blocking emergency vehicles, timely fire-fighting and rescue operations may be difficult or impossible.
Population density, urbanization, seismic risk, high-rise buildings, Shinjuku, Tokyo. -- Increased population and urbanization, combined with the scarcity and consequent high cost of land, leads to the construction of high-rise buildings in many cities. The potential danger in areas of frequent seismic activity is obvious. Modern high-rise buildings in Japan are engineered to strict earthquake codes, but the final test will be the next big quake.
Volcanic risk, Morioka and nearby Mt. Iwate. -- About 60 Japanese volcanoes (approximately ten percent of the world's total) have been active since the seventh century, and Morioka, like many Japanese cities, is susceptible to volcanic hazards. Mt. Iwate, seen here just north of Morioka, is a composite volcano, hence its eruptions are apt to be explosive. Ash fall, ash flows accompanied by burning gases, and lava flows are all possible should Mt. Iwate erupt. Increasing the danger is the fact that newer suburbs of Morioka are expanding on the flat lands toward the base of the volcano.
Ryoanji rock garden, Kyoto. -- This famous garden invites one to contemplate the natural physical environment. Only natural materials are used, and we might ask whether this is a reconstruction of the natural world in miniature. Is it meant to increase our awareness of the environment we must live in and the natural processes we cannot control?
Coping with earthquake hazard, use of wood in structures, Morioka. -- Wooden structures are more flexible than rigid ones built of brick, adobe or concrete, and are better able to "give" and thus survive ground movement and vibration associated with earthquakes. The Japanese probably learned this through experience long ago, and along with the availability of timber in Japan, this has led to widespread use of wood for constructing even large buildings. This is not without hazard, however, because fire is a common result of damaging earthquakes.
Andesite breccia, evidence of violent volcanic eruption, Aketo. -- Rocks like this andesite breccia are abundant in Japan. The large, dark-colored, angular blocks were blasted from a volcano during a violent eruption and fell to earth where, along with ash and other volcanic debris, they became part of this rock. The size and abundance of the chunks attests to the violence of the eruption. The presence of rocks like this of different ages and in different parts of the country indicates that explosive eruptions have been widespread during Japan's geologic history.
Bayhead bar beach and coastal village of Hiraiga. -- Along this mountainous coastline, flat land is scarce. The homes and buildings of the small village of Hiraiga are crammed into nearly every piece of reasonably flat land above the high tide line. In much of Japan, rugged mountains separate the small areas of flat land upon which villages could be built causing the villages to be isolated from one another. The scarcity of flat land also leads to concentration of the Japanese population into those areas flat enough to build upon.