Minutes of the Colorado College Student Government Association Executive Council meeting held on March 5, 2013. Members present include: President Nathan Lee, Student Concerns Vice President Charis Whitnah, Outreach Vice President Pat Knecht, Finance Vice President Stanley Sigalov, Constitutional Vice President Elliott Mamet, Associate Dean of Students Rochelle Mason, and Faculty Advisor Professor Peter Blasenheim.
This poster was created for the event "I <3 (Female) Orgasm", held on April 24, 2013 at 7:00 p.m., in the Cornerstone Theater on the Colorado College Campus. The event included a presentation by guest speakers Marshall Miller and Kate Weinberg.
Phytoplankton perform a crucial role in ecosystems, as they are responsible for about half of global oxygen production and serve as a major component of biogeochemical nutrient cycling. Long-term trends, bloom patterns, and environmental drivers of the marine diatom Thalassiosira nordenskioeldii were studied. T. nordenskioeldii is abundant in Narragansett Bay seasonally, representing up to 44% of winter diatoms some years, being most prevalent in water from -1 to 1 °C. Water temperature in Narragansett Bay during the T. nordenskioeldii bloom window has increased over 1°C since 1959, which may push winter water temperature past T. nordenskioeldii’s optimal in-situ habitat conditions. As climate change continues, increasing water temperatures may alter T. nordenskioeldii bloom patterns. The data analyzed came from a time-series of weekly observations in lower Narragansett Bay, spanning from 1959-2011. Long-term trends show elevated abundance in 1960s and 1970s, followed by declining abundance through 1980s and 1990s. Populations increased in 2000s, but not to the same magnitude seen early in the time-series. Embedded in the long-term pattern were 53-month cycles, with an apparent disappearance in recent years. Cardinal characters were assigned to bloom characteristics (initiation, peak, duration, etc.) and used for analysis. Perhaps most noteworthy was the high variation exhibited, with blooms initiating anywhere from early December to early April and maximum bloom magnitude ranging from 96 to 8137 cells/ml. Multivariate statistical analyses identified three bloom types: an early, moderate bloom; a later intense bloom; and a late bloom with low abundance. Intense blooms came in winters with reduced river flow (37.3 m3/sec) and cold surface water temperatures (3.8°C), compared to smaller blooms occurring in winters with increased river flow (42.4-49.6 m3/sec) and warmer water (4.2-4.6°C). Understanding trends and bloom parameters of T. nordenskioeldii will allow for appropriate analysis of climate effects and prediction of future impacts.
Recent study of altitudinal treeline advance has revealed that increasing seasonal temperatures only partly explain the processes that influence treeline structure and elevation. Microsite modifications, induced by the structure of the treeline, may in fact play a large role in regulating the microclimate, creating more favorable conditions for further seedling establishment and recruitment near the treeline. To explore these modifications, previous research on Pikes Peak has compared heating dynamics within a treeline microclimate to the microclimate of an adjacent rockslide at an identical elevation. Observations indicated that the treeline heats up faster and to a higher maximum temperature than the rockslide nearly every day of the study period (Johnson, 2011). Potential mechanisms for this differential heating were explored, however only the sheltering potential of the trees to reduce winds proved worthy of further investigation (Anderson, 2012). To expand upon these findings, this study aims to verify the presence of differential heating between treeline and rockslide, investigate the role of sheltering to reduce heat loss within treeline, and explore to what extent this sheltering could extend beyond the treeline’s leading edge. First, this study found that temperatures within the treeline were on average ~7C warmer than the rockslide from 15cm above the ground to 10cm deep within the soil, a critical habitat for seedling establishment (Körner, 1998). Furthermore, this study reveals that the magnitude of differential heating increases throughout the growing season, exhibiting larger differences later in the season. These findings indicate that, despite decreasing solar input late in the season, the treeline has a higher capacity to retain heat than the rockslide and prolongs favorable growing conditions later into the summer months. To investigate how sheltering may play a role in holding heat within the treeline, the zero-plane displacement was calculated for the treeline, rockslide, and upper tundra. Results indicate that treeline form shelters a boundary layer of warm air close to the ground that could enable increased heat storage within the treeline’s soil. Furthermore, this sheltering effect extends beyond the treeline’s leading edge and modifies the tundra microclimate by reducing wind effects in lee of the treeline. This mechanism of sheltering could create a positive feedback loop in which microclimatological modifications, induced by the trees presence, allow for continual growth beyond the forest boundary.
Martha Gellhorn (1908-1998), an American writer and journalist, and María Teresa León (1903-1988), a Spanish writer and activist, happen to be two women writing during the Spanish Civil War. They also happen to be in relationships with the renowned authors: Ernest Hemingway and Rafael Alberti. However, the reason for comparison is not founded in their gender nor their relationships with their famous literary husbands. The point of comparison that is intriguing lies in the fact that they are both intellectuals in metaphorical exile who bring double perspective to their writing, according to the theories of Edward Said, a Palestinian-American theorist. Through analyzing how León and Gellhorn bring their double perspectives to their writings, the paper will show how because their metaphorical exiles are different, the way in which they deliver their political messages in their writings varies.
Palestinian uses of violent and nonviolent tactics are varied and diverse. Using Chenoweth and Stephan's quantitative and qualitative work on nonviolent versus violent movements, I show that when the Palestinians utilized nonviolent means against the Israeli occupation during the first intifada they was reasonably successful in gaining Israeli concessions. This is contrasted with the use of violent means during the second intifada, which caused harsh repression and sanctions from the Israelis. I conclude that if Palestinians desire to once again rise up against the occupation, they should do so through nonviolent means so as to have a higher probability of success.
Can environmental education and environmental interpretation inspire a sense of place through education and interpretation specifically designed to help one understand the Pikes Peak landscape? Can the concept of sense of provide a pathway to stewardship? I believe that the answer to both of these questions is yes. My project focuses on Barr Trail (BT), the most common route to the summit of Pikes Peak. I have produced an interpretive guide to BT that incorporates theories from sense of place studies, environmental education, and environmental interpretation as a means to create connection and enhance stewardship. Personal experience with trail users over an eight year period has lead me to theorize that stewardship arises from connection to place; that connection is built on understanding within one’s own framework of experience and mindset; and that understanding requires awareness. Engaging trail users in the landscape of Pikes Peak can help create awareness of the landscape and the interconnected systems of human and non-human nature that make it a specific place. Combining the concept of experiential learning from environmental education with interpretation of the landscape can help inspire a sense of place. Gaining a sense of place in the Pikes Peak landscape can lead to better stewardship of BT.
Using the subcultural framework from the Center for Contemporary Cultural Studies (CCCS) and Marxist definitions of class this study seeks to better understand upper class youth subcultures. It argues that through identity tied to the parent culture upper class youth form subcultures of symbolic resistance around relationships both romantic and familial. This study uses quantitative analysis of a survey taken at Colorado College. Gender was statistically significant when determining respondents feelings and actions around relationships. Young women were attempting to resist the dominant discourse while young men were complicit, proving gender as a currently relevant subculture. Overall, class was not statistically significant. The analysis draws on Muggleton’s (2000) theory of neo-tribalism and hypothesis that class is no longer relevant to post modern youth. In the end, participating in youth subcultures gives the youth a sense of resistance, however, is a futile effort as subcultures are re-commodified by their dominant culture and rendered harmless without any real change to the structures of power.
Bullying among school-aged children has received notoriety in the media as of late, especially following highly publicized incidents in which victims have killed themselves or others as a result of being bullied. The following study analyzed data from the 2005-2006 Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey, a national survey of students, in order to determine the socio-demographic factors predictive of bullying behaviors. A dichotomous bully variable was derived from the data set and used in an initial logistic regression with a set of independent variables representing student race/ethnicity, gender, family SES, family structure, and parental engagement. Initial results demonstrated the significance of parental attachment above all other independent variables, in addition to gender and family SES. OLS regressions were then run in order to determine which independent variables affected parent engagement. Results indicated that both mothers and fathers, especially those from racial/ethnic minority backgrounds, were significantly less engaged with their children than their white counterparts, particularly racial/ethnic minority fathers being significantly less engaged with their daughters. These results point to a crisis of masculinity as well as greater structural inequality that prevents minority parents from being more engaged with their children.
Biracial individuals, as demarcated by having one white and one non-white parent, hold a unique social position in the United States. Situated in a white racial hierarchy, individuals of mixed races are, in some ways, caught between racial lines—they do not embody one racial category but rather two. Given that biracial individuals exist outside of established racial binaries, one is left wondering in what manner they racially identify. While some research argues that raced Americans (that is, those who are raced as non-white) are confined by their racial appearance and hence limited in ethnic identity options (Waters 1990; Gans 1979), more recent research finds that raced Americans experience a degree of opportunity and choice in the expression of an ethnic and/or racial identity (Khanna 2011). My research, situated between these two polar studies, finds that biracial individuals are at once both confined and free. Comprised of eleven interviews with biracial individuals across three racial categories (black, Asian and Latino), I ask: How do biracial individuals racially self-identify? In what manner and to what extent does phenotype affect the way in which individuals choose a particular identity? And how do individuals express their identity through ethnic and/or racial symbols? What I find is that, in support of Waters’ (1990) and Gans’ (1979) assertions, respondents’ phenotypes greatly affect the way in which they racially identify—respondents tend to draw on racial and ethnic symbols opposite their phenotype in order to either fit in or stand out. In particular, I find that phenotypically non-white respondents draw on American ethnicity in order to claim white affiliation and assimilation. At the same time, however, respondents, like Khanna’s (2011), maintain the freedom to draw on symbols of race and ethnicity. And regardless of phenotype, individuals predominately draw on symbols of non-whiteness to claim feelings of being different and unique.
Sociologists are starting to understand emotions as a socially constructed phenomenon. Research has been conducted to understand how emotions prevail in every environment, whether it is academic, person, or work settings. However, there is a lack of information gathered regarding emotions during critical transition periods. Based on previous theoretical findings about emotions, there are particular ways students should emote throughout their college experience. This study looks at the display of emotions at two liberal arts colleges. Through survey and focus group research, this thesis found that the colleges were much the same, and the expected differences in gender were not found. The major difference was between the expression and suppression of emotion between freshmen, sophomores, and upperclassmen.
Ten to fifteen minutes following death, a large release of CO2 is produced in many species when killed by high temperature. Studied in mosquitoes, hissing cockroaches, grasshoppers, and desert harvester ants, this post-mortal peak (PMP) appears to be temperature-dependent and, to our knowledge, does not occur in insects killed by means other than high temperature. Four effects were applied to common house crickets (Acheta domestica) to analyze the origin and properties of the PMP. First, it was shown that the PMP does not occur without oxygen. Second, post-mortal CO2 release was studied as a function of temperature-exposure following death and it was established that the phenomenon is dependent on extreme temperatures and runs to completion when exposed to temperatures above 60°C. Third, basic and buffered solutions were employed to assess the possible involvement of dissolved HCO3- (bicarbonate), the dissolved form of CO2, in production of the peak. Hemolymph factors like bicarbonate did not appear to have an effect on the PMP. Finally, exposure to hydrogen cyanide inhibited the PMP, demonstrating the involvement of mitochondria and cytochrome c oxidase in particular. Together, these results rule out any effect of hemolymph or possible CO2 stores in the body of an insect on the PMP. The PMP occurs as an aerobic mitochondrial reaction that requires high initiation temperatures. We believe that this underlying cause may be mitochondrial breakdown at high-temperatures. More specifically, fluidity of the mitochondrial membranes likely increases with high heat, disabling the established proton gradient and ATP production. The resultant accumulation of electron carriers allows for cyclic, but futile operation of the citric acid cycle and electron transport chain with remaining pyruvate stores.
For centuries scholars have assumed that a ubiquitous deterioration in quality of life occurred throughout the former Western Roman Empire following its collapse in the 5th century AD. This presumption is largely the result of a lack of understanding of the common people and the so-called “barbarians.” My research addresses this gap in the literature through the bioarchaeological analysis of the impact of the Vandal occupation of the Roman city of Sanisera on the island of Menorca, Spain during the 5th-6th centuries AD. The frequencies of osteological indicators of pathological conditions are calculated and compared to frequencies at other sites throughout the Empire dated to before, during, and after the barbarian invasions and collapse of the Western Roman Empire. This data is used to determine relative quality of life and the level of continuity in health between Roman and Vandal rule. The indicators analyzed are dental caries, dental calculus, abscesses, antemortem tooth loss (AMTL), periodontal disease, dental enamel hypoplasias (DEH), traumas including fractures and dislocations, periostitis, osteomyelitis, degenerative joint disease, osteophytosis, osteoarthritis, and osteoporosis. The results indicate a high rate of disease at Sanisera, likely as a result of the plague that swept the region during this period. The diet was relatively balanced and nutritious, and the level of mechanical stress was normal for a rural, non-mechanized society. Overall, these results indicate that the average level of health at Sanisera was relatively good for a rural, non-mechanized society from antiquity. The level of health seen at Sanisera is consistent with other sites prior to the collapse of the Empire, implying that the Vandal occupation of the island did not result in a decline in the quality of life of its inhabitants.
This thesis explores the Chinese Muslim intellectual movement that lasted from roughly 1630-1730 CE and how those in the movement constructed an Islamic school of Confucian thought and a Chinese Muslim intellectual Identity. In the process, Chinese Muslim intellectuals, including the scholar Liu Zhi, made the case that the Prophet Muhammad was a Confucian sage and his teachings belonged in the Confucian canon. This thesis also explores the relationship between Chinese Muslims and the Qing state in an effort to explain why their teachings did not spread to the rest of Chinese society.
Poster created to inform Colorado College students about an opportunity to study in Shanghai, China during Spring semester, 2014.
Tattooing as a cultural practice has existed definitively in the archaeological record since the Bronze Age and continues in a diverse array of contemporary cultures. Throughout its extensive history, tattooing has often been closely tied to the military community, as either a mark of prestige or punishment, or through the military’s ability to transfer the practice between cultures. This study investigates tattooing among the contemporary military community in terms of image, location, motivation, and meaning in order to better understand influences of tattooing on identity formation. Quantitative and qualitative data collected through interviews in several tattoo parlors in the Colorado Springs area revealed that 71% of the tattoos observed had no military association in imagery or motivation, compared to 12% with direct military association. The results, when coupled with military tattoo history, indicated a higher level of personal identity assertion than anticipated. This study investigates this phenomenon further and formulates a new hypothesis on tattooing among the military community: the trend of individuality.
Through the perspective of the 2010 earthquake in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, I examine the factors that decrease earthquake death tolls. I find that each additional dollar of aid per capita received by a nation two years prior to a quake causes a 2.36 percent decline in fatalities from the event; investment in infrastructure has ambiguous results. Furthermore, I conclude that the death toll of the Haitian quake was atypically high when compared to earthquakes of similar magnitude.
The design of a product is the first impression that a company makes on a consumer. A good design can attract consumers to the product, portray the company’s brand, and add value to the product. Therefore, the exterior design of a product is imperative to the perception of the product, and overall success in the market. In the crowded global wine industry, consumers usually judge the wine solely by its label. For a new generation of consumers, the millennial generation, it is imperative to understand their preferences in these labels. Looking at modern and classically designed labels, this study investigates what influences the millennial generation’s preference of label design. Qualitative and quantitative data from a wine tasting finds that the millennial generation’s initial visual perception is driven by their previous experience with wine, while their actual preference is driven by unconscious design likability.
In this study I apply the theory that changing energy prices induce innovation to producers of energy, specifically the oil and gas industry. Using pricing, production and patent data from 1980 – 2011, I model the share of total patents that are applicable to oil and gas as a function of expected future commodity prices, production of each commodity and previous stock of knowledge. In the building of the model, I develop knowledge stock variables and expected future prices specific to the industry. I find a significant, positive and highly elastic correlation between expected commodity prices and innovation, that is in line with previous work and the induced innovation theory.
This study investigates whether socially responsible (CSR) firms behave responsibly in their financial reporting, specifically by constraining earnings management. This study first clarifies what a CSR firm is and identifies socially responsible firms through the KLD database. Three methods are used to detect earnings management—abnormal discretionary accruals, abnormal cash flows from operations and abnormal cash flows to net income ratios. This study concludes that CSR firms are less likely than their industry counterparts to participate in sales manipulations, are more likely to have higher cash flows from operations, and are more likely to have higher quality of earnings.
This thesis investigates characteristic variables such as wealth and recent wealth of PGA Tour golfers that may affect risk taking behavior during play. This study finds that professional golfer's risk taking behavior on the PGA Tour is affected very little, if at all, by recent and career performances. Additionally it is found that in-tournament performance as well the importance of the tournament will slightly affect their risk taking behavior.