Compiled by Colorado College Students for Global Health. The Asclepian is an independent publication of the Students for Global Health Club. The newsletter was started in order to educate the student body about current issues affecting public and global health.
Minutes of the Colorado College Student Government Association Executive Council meeting held on September 18, 2012. Members present include: President Nathan Lee, Student Concerns Vice President Charis Whitnah, Outreach Vice President Pat Knecht, Finance Vice President Stanley Sigalov, Constitutional Vice President Elliott Mamet, Associate Dean of Students Rochelle Mason, and Faculty Advisor Professor Peter Blasenheim.
Minutes of the Colorado College Student Government Association Full Council meeting held on October 18, 2012.
The Leviathan is CC's student magazine for poetry, prose, visual art and music.
The Purple Paper : Politics Monthly is the newsletter of the CC Dems, CC Repubs and the Collaborative for Community Engagement.
Spatial context in predator-prey systems has proven to have important dynamical consequences. Instabilities and spatial pattern formation driven by diffusion (Turing pattern formation) have been extensively observed and theorized on, but empirical examples of Turing pattern formation in ecological systems are few. In this study we construct and analyze a reaction-diffusion equation model of the aphid species Aphis helianthi under predation by two species of ladybugs: Coccinella septempunctata and Hippodamia convergens. The structure and parametrization of the model is entirely field derived and in analysis of model output it is compared extensively to field observations. This system fits the well known framework for diffusive instability and pattern formation: an activator-inhibitor system in which the inhibitor (predator) diffuses substantially faster than the activator (prey). Theory predicts that under these conditions the inhibitor will fail to strike a normal equilibrium with the activator; rather diffusing away from activator outbreaks too quickly to contain them, subsequently over-inhibiting the surrounding lower densities of activator (undermatching). This usually results in a patchy, bimodal distribution of prey resulting from cubic density dependence driven by undermatching. Aphid population distribution in the field is clearly bimodal and patchy. We looked for several indications of diffusive instability in field data; bimodality, cubic density dependence, and undermatching were all found. The focus of this paper is on a mathematical model we developed from field data to gain insight into the workings of the system. I found the model matched field data very well and corroborated the hypothesized functioning of a diffusive instability. I explored the role of self attraction (aggregation) among ladybugs. Aggregation is not considered a hallmark of diffusive instability but in this case it created some preytaxis in ladybugs (allowing aphids to act as an activator). Preytaxis by aggregation is slow though, which allowed some aphid populations to avoid detection long enough to reach the high attractor of cubic density dependence. Finally I considered the nature of space in our system. Although our model is constructed in Euclidean space it demonstrates some features of a network. Network structured systems manifest Turing patterns primarily as bimodal distributions. They also facilitate understanding of ladybug behavior and may increase efficiency of computer model execution.
This study investigated the behavior of the terrestrial biosphere during times of significant drought, particularly in regard to carbon fluxes. The Simple Biosphere Model Version 3 (SiB3) was used to facilitate an investigation of ecosystem drought response. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) was evaluated from 1983 to 2006 in order to produce historical drought maps, which were used to facilitate a subjective analysis of drought behavior and to identify geographic point locations in the SiB3 model for further temporal study. Standardized maps were produced for modeled physiological variables (gross primary productivity, respiration, net ecosystem exchange, and soil water stress factor) over time in order to determine general regional drought response patterns. Physiological response variable data for particular spatial locations was then analyzed over time during drought years for anecdotal comparison with observational study data. While the SPI, which standardizes precipitation, was predicted to be an indicator of ecosystem drought response, this did not appear to be the case. The droughts modeled in the SiB3 model, which included the droughts in the United States Southwest and Australia in 2002 and in Europe in 2003, were found to respond heterogeneously in terms of carbon fluxes to similar droughts. The U.S. Southwest and Australia appeared to respond to drought in a manner consistent with anecdotal evidence with regard to perturbations in gross primary productivity (GPP), ecosystem respiration, and net ecosystem exchange (NEE), while Europe appeared to respond in a manner dissimilar to published descriptions of that drought. The behavior of the soil water stress factor in Australia and Europe seemed to be incorrect as well. Precipitation input data, derived from a reanalysis dataset from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), the treatment by the SiB3 model of the soil water stress factor, and the possible heterogeneous vegetative response to seasonality between regions were identified as potential causes of these disparities.
The Monthly Rag, a publication of the Feminist and Gender Studies interns, is found affixed to toilet stall walls around the Colorado College campus.
A video created by Colorado College students as part of the course, FG110 Introduction to Feminist and Gender Studies, taught by Assistant Professor Heidi Lewis during Block 5, 2012.
A video created by Colorado College students as part of the course, FG110 Introduction to Feminist and Gender Studies, taught by Assistant Professor Heidi Lewis during FYE Block 1, 2012.
Algal biofuel shows incredible potential as a partial solution to our global energy problems, but whether algal biofuel will succeed in the Southwestern United States may depend on the ability of microalgae to effectively grow in water from brackish or saline aquifers. This study was designed to test how effectively algae can grow in water from these brackish aquifers. Experiments measured growth rates (determined by final chlorophyll content) of three algal cultures (Chlorella vulgaris and two locally collected cultures) in increasing concentrations of salt (NaCl), the growth of C. vulgaris in three types of salt found in southwestern aquifers (MgCl2, NaCl, Na2SO4), and the ability of two species (C. Vulgaris and one local species) to produce more lipids when grown in a nitrogen deplete medium rather than a nitrogen replete medium (the “lipid trigger” theory). Data from the first experiment showed that increasing salt decreased overall growth in C. vulgaris and culture #1, but that culture #2 was salt tolerant. The second experiment showed that increasing concentrations of magnesium chloride and sodium chloride decreased growth overall, and that sodium sulfate increased growth overall. The third experiment showed that C. vulgaris had higher lipid content than culture #2, but that neither species significantly increased lipid production when deprived of nitrogen. Though cultivation of algae for biofuel is not currently profitable, utilization of one or more of these strains in brackish aquifer water may provide a viable means to produce biofuel in the future.
The San Juan-Chama Diversion Project (SJCDP) is a federal irrigation infrastructure project that transports 96,200 acre-feet of Upper Colorado River basin water from the San Juan River in Southern Colorado to the Chama River in Northern New Mexico through mountain and desert via a network of tunnels, pipes, and canals. While some of this water is used for municipal and agricultural purposes throughout Middle Rio Grande communities, the majority of this water was purchased by the city of Albuquerque for municipal and industrial uses. This paper uses this, and associated projects (Navajo Indian Irrigation Project) to explore the connections and tensions between the law, people and the environment in the development of the American West, and New Mexico in particular.
The rise of the nation-state since modernity is a phenomenon that has been studied by theorists across various fields. What is it about the past few centuries that have inspired men to place so much faith in their nation? My paper will seek to ground G.W.F. Hegel’s Philosophy of History as the philosophical work that legitimized the nation’s rise to power, through the construction of a national historical consciousness. Hegel was the first thinker who attempted to unite the subjective self with the objective, by making the objective realizable through a philosophic understanding of history. The nation-state, Hegel suggested, was the ‘end of history’, because through individual thought man found himself to be reflected in his nation. The questions I will ask in my paper are: does Hegel go far enough to ground his extraordinary claim, that we can internalize our historical destiny through reason? How did his claims about history influence his followers, for better or for worse? Have we really reached the ‘end of history’, or did Hegel mean something else by his famous phrase? Last, is it still likely for national history to reveal a shared consciousness in today’s multicultural world? With these questions, I hope to provide a new perspective regarding Hegel’s Philosophy of History, as well as give the discipline of history a new place in our modern world.
Niccolo Machiavelli is a political philosopher with a coherent and complex concern for human liberty, as presented through his works The Prince and the Discourses on Livy. Machiavelli’s two works must be synthesized, possible through the examination of the mechanism of fortune in both works. Fortune situates human politics and human history, opposed only by human virtue. This concern with virtue reveals Machiavelli’s concern for the efficacy of human action in politics, which he expands to a concern for human liberty and dignity. Fortuna situates human politics, but Machiavelli retains hope that her whims may be fought by the virtuous political man with an endpoint of stability.
This paper discusses the relationship between the type of welfare system, selective or universal, practiced by a state and the public attitudes toward the poor. How public attitudes toward the poor are formed is important because beliefs about the causes and character of poverty influence what social aid measures people will support. By comparing the welfare systems and public opinions of the United States and France I tested the hypothesis that the type of welfare system has an effect on how the public frames their beliefs about poverty and homelessness. The United States, as a selective care system, fostered a view of the poor as a differentiated group that only deserved aid when absolutely in need of assistance. The individualist tradition of the United States was reflected in its welfare system and in turn the system perpetuated the belief that poverty is most often the fault of the individual and that recipients should work as not to become dependent on the state. France represented the universal care system and was found to propagate views of the poor that were based more on structural barriers. The universal care system was based on a more egalitarian tradition and tended to view social welfare as the right of all citizens. As expected, the universal system influenced the support of more inclusive social aid that promoted solidarity among all citizens. The selective care system reinforced negative beliefs that recipients were distinct from regular citizens and that poverty was due to individual characteristics.
The data for this thesis was collected from eight interviews and participant observation. Participant observation took place in league poker games in bars and restaurants and cash poker games and tournaments in casinos. Interviews were conducted with both players of the poker league and casino poker. Poker is a male dominated game and it is a leisure time activity, outside of the workforce and the private home. Individuals who participated in these poker games reproduced gender binaries by performing gender. Male poker players respond to and treat women different than men, and women who participate in the poker games are expected to perform specific, stereotypical female roles. The research has addressed how gender is performed not only in the workplace or in private homes, but also in leisure activities in the public sphere. The implications of this include the reproduction of poker as a male dominated game in a male dominated arena and the reproduction of female stereotypes. Though women have been accepted into this male dominated game in great numbers, the men still treat women as though they do not belong. The females who participate in these poker games have extended the intentions of the feminist movement by seeking for equality of women in public arenas.
Although there is an emerging body of literature on ethnic groups and natural resource use in America, there is not much research regarding specific ethnic groups and their interactions with the American wilderness. This thesis explores the relationship between the American social constructions of wilderness and a specific refugee population in America—the Hmong people. Interviews were conducted with participants in the Twin Cities of Minnesota with conversations focusing on identity and wilderness interactions. These interviews revealed that the Hmong, a Southeast Asian people with a deeply rooted connection to nature interact with the wilderness in ways that differ from the American norm. Yet, through segmented assimilation, younger generations of Hmong have also acculturated to the American perception of wilderness as a place of self-discovery.
Disasters, man made or natural, can impact a community in extreme ways, sometimes changing a people’s lives forever. The research done by sociologists of disaster mainly focus on the communal response to the disaster and how quickly the community can bounce back from the life altering event. There are many aspects to a successful community response to a disaster including: preparation, social capital, cooperation, coordination and organizations. This paper offers analysis on over 80 organizations and categorizes them into specific groups describing what the categories can tell about a community. Through a modified response model of Bardo (1977) the organizations are specified as manifest or emergent, describing the 9/11 communities’ extensive social capital and resource mobilization. The second category is determined by the most common organization groups found in the American Red Cross’s 9/11 Service Guide: A list of Programs That Receive September 11 Recovery Grants from the Liberty Disaster Relief Fund. These four major categories demonstrate what areas received the most support and attention in the years following 9/11.
The concept of choice is a disputed but nonetheless important feature of human life. In light of the radical expansion of choice in contemporary Western, consumer culture, it is now, more than ever, critical to examine how one’s decisions are informed both by their context and by their potential effects. I propose that if we aspire to move toward the great social solidarity that the classical social theorists call for, we must put into practice a new concept to orient ourselves within this space of choices: a morality in which each individual views his own consequential subjectivity as the part of himself that he has in common with all other humans across space and time. I show that theory that seeks to explain any social phenomenon must acknowledge causal agency and incorporate the moral agency of the individual, who has the capacity to make seemingly non-rational choices, based on what is deemed to be significant to him. Such an endeavor necessitates an investigation of the processes through which the external world comes to have specific meaning and value for each individual. By first using Bourdieu’s work to locate individual agency in the challenges of everyday life and then arranging a marriage between the idealistic moral social theory of Bauman and the more functional theory of social solidarity that Alexander provides, I craft my own theory about how to progress toward a functional social solidarity.
My thesis examines the role that think tanks play in the immigration policy debates. Drawing from Pierre Bourdieu’s concepts of social space and fields of power, I critically analyze the space that immigration think tanks occupy and the influence they demonstrate with regard to their relational positioning in this space. According to Thomas Medvetz (2008:9-10), think tanks can be understood as an “organizational device for gathering and assembling forms of authority conferred by the more established institutions of academics, politics, business and the media” (Medvetz 2008: 9-10). By analyzing the intellectual products written by experts from five distinct think tanks, I seek to uncover the strategies, practices and propensities of each organization. This analysis allows for situating each organization in relation to each other. I also include in the analysis each think tanks unique orientation to the proximate locations of power. For my thesis, I examine a think tank sample that includes the Urban Institute (government contract model orientation); Migration Policy Institute (academic orientation); National Immigration Forum (economic orientation); Federation for American Immigration Reform (ideological orientation); and National Network for Immigrant and Refugee Rights (grassroots orientation). By coding the policy-oriented publications of each think tank, I create a conceptual field through which I can visualize each organizations unique location in relation to each other. This field emerged out of positioning each organization on two primary axes: (1) the epistemological axis, which measures whether the legitimacy and/or authority of the intellectual products rest upon academic/scholarly/objective evidence or more upon a popular/narrative evidence and (2) the political rationale/axis, which measures whether the intellectual products on US immigration policy reflect a focus on its national impact or on a more comprehensive goal of internationally recognized human rights. I explore a third axis, which measures the interests that are being promoted (if any) in terms of business interests vs. worker interests. I conclude with a discussion as to which think tank is the most effective among the five and I explain why I think their particular characteristics put them in their particular position such that they have the greatest potential to influence immigration policy.
Phoolan Devi (1963-2001) is recognized affectionately not only throughout her home state of Uttar Pradesh, but also throughout the entire country of India as the Bandit Queen. From a young age, Phoolan rejected her grim destiny as a submissive girl from a low caste and began speaking out for justice within her community. Though her early years were filled with abuse and rape, instead of her misfortune breaking her down, it only fueled her to stop injustice and reap revenge on such monsters. In her teens, as a dacoit, Phoolan’s hunger for retribution was ever increasing. At this time, she made her name on the main stage of India as a mysterious female bandit leader. The press and the people of India were in disagreement about whom and what Phoolan embodied—demon or divine being. After serving an eleven-year jail sentence for her illegal deeds as a dacoit, Phoolan Devi began a successful political career culminating in her election as a Member of Indian Parliament. Her second elected term, however, was cut short by her assassination on July 25, 2001. Throughout her life, Phoolan maintained a calm composure, an overwhelming presence of shakti, and a rare form of feminine masculinity. All of these qualities are particularly reminiscent of the great warrior goddess, Durga. This paper explores how Phoolan was able to escape India’s judgment as a demon and instead become an image of divinity. Additionally, this paper hypothesizes that this divinity is due not only to Phoolan’s modern embodiment of the myths describing Durga as a protective warrior goddess, but also to her enactment of Durga’s masculine power.
Dr. Harold Koenig, the director of the Center for Spirituality, Theology, and Health at Duke University and one of the leading researchers in the field of Religion and Medicine advocates for a change in the current medical system that incorporates religion and spirituality. Koenig argues that because religion is so influential to patients’ ability to cope with illness, it must be addressed in patient care in order for the patient to have a successful recovery. In order to make his theory appear viable he tries to prove through scientific research that religion has a beneficial effect on people’s health. To this date, Koenig has published more than 35 books and over 280 articles on this topic. The aim of this thesis project was to take a close examination of Koenig’s theory of why religion should be introduced into the medical world and the method in which he takes to prove this theory. What I will argue is that although I agree that medical care needs to be changed in order to meet more than just the physical needs of patients, Koenig’s approach to do this by scientifically proving the health benefits of religion through his published books is unconvincing as well as ineffective in benefiting patients.
Office hours have been an important facet of student learning in higher education for decades. High school teachers attempt to incorporate the same individualized instruction opportunity for their students, but the constraints of the high school system make this a difficult reality. Furthermore, the explosion of online social media has redefined the student social landscape over the last decade. As a result, new research has started to explore these digital Web 2.0 resources as an alternative educational opportunity to foster student-teacher communication beyond the classroom. This study provides a review of the pertinent literature based on college Facebook studies, and survey data assessing the student based want and usefulness of digital office hours at a large diverse public high school in the United States. Results indicated that direct interaction with a teacher is the preferred method of receiving academic assistance thus highlighting the potential for Facebook and other Web 2.0 utilities to foster individualized learning in the digital world. This concludes with recommendations for implementing public (Facebook, Myspace etc.) or private (segregated social networks) social networking systems to facilitate new Web 2.0 communication avenues. Future research should consider these recommendations when employing digital office hours at the high school level to ensure learning can occur in a safe and secure digital distance environment.