Large wood (LW) provides habitat to aquatic organisms and can significantly alter stream geomorphology. Sources of LW to stream ecosystem originate in riparian forests and are influenced by wildfire regimes. To quantify the relationship between burn severities and in-stream LW, we surveyed 15 low order streams effected by varying wildfire burn severities in a near-pristine watershed of the Frank Church River of No-Return Wilderness in Central Idaho. In the field and using remotely sensed imagery, burn severity was divided into four categories: “unburned,” “low,” “moderate,” and “high”. We hypothesized that burn severity would be positively correlated with in-stream LW. Alternatively, in areas with the highest burn severities, LW might be limited due to combustion. To test this hypothesis we used principal components analysis that indicated fire severity, recruitable LW, and pre-fire vegetation are the most important predictors of in-stream LW in landscapes with a natural wildfire regime. In particular, high category severity burns had significantly more LW than the other categories. An increase in burn severity is also correlated with increased average piece size. The comparison of fire severity maps to field data found a significant correlation locally but no correlation with fire severity of upstream reaches. Few studies have compared the interaction of in-stream LW and fire severity in a near-pristine stream ecosystem. The results of this study improve our understanding of LW dynamics in Intermountain West watersheds with a natural wildfire regime, and could inform post-fire salvage logging management practices.
Newsletter of the Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Colorado College.
At first glance, the Chechens and Volga Tatars share several similarities. Both ethnic groups have religious traditions rooted in a regionally particular form of Islam. This is the Khanafi school of Sunni Islam, which combines traditional, Muslim law (Shariah) with local customs influenced by Sufi brotherhoods. In addition, both Chechens and Volga Tatars were incorporated into the Russian Tsarist Empire against their will as a result of military conquest. Moreover, both peoples suffered mightily during the repressive Stalinist period, but also experienced certain degrees of modernization, urbanization and industrialization. Lastly, both peoples occupied similar rungs in the Soviet hierarchy, meaning that each was the titular people of an autonomous republic. The Volga Tatars of the Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (TASSR) were incorporated into the USSR on May 27th 1920 and the Chechens of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (CIASSR) were incorporated on December 5th 1936. However, the trajectory of the Post-Soviet transition has resulted in very different outcomes for these two peoples. In Chechnya, the transition brought to power General Dzhokhar Dudaev, a radical separatist, who did not flinch from the prospect of war with Russia. On the other hand, Tatarstan won substantial autonomy from Russia without using violence. This paper aims to answer the question: why did these outcomes diverge so drastically? This question can be answered in various ways. In the first chapter, I will address the basic geographic and demographic differences between the two societies. In the second chapter, I will explore the differences in the long-term historical experiences among the Volga Tatars and Chechens and the impacts the Tsarist Empire and Soviet Union had on their respective societies. In the third chapter, I will examine Russia’s insecurities regarding its level of civilization and their efforts to “orientalize” the Caucasus as a means of better defining Russian identity. I will use Edward Said’s Orientalism as a theoretical lens of analysis. In the fourth chapter, I will outline the differences between the two republic’s political developments in post-Soviet transition and the vital distinctions in the democratic processes. In this section, religion and its role in each society’s respective politics will become apparent. In the final chapter, the aftermath of the two wars with Chechnya will be examined and the correlated socio-economic problems as well as the contrasting socio-economic situation in Tatarstan today. In this section I will specifically stress the significance of the Kadyrov family on modern day Chechnya and prospects for the future.
This study shows how social capital affects the outreach and operational self-sufficiency of microfinance institutions (MFIs) around the world. Borrowing from the literature, this thesis defines social capital as those features of human relationships—specifically social networks, social norms, and trustworthiness—which help a community to achieve economic development. This research uses quantitative data from the Microfinance Information Exchange and the World Values Survey as well as qualitative data collected during a ten-day case study with the Adelante Foundation in La Ceiba, Honduras. The regression model shows which aspects of social capital have the greatest influence on MFI performance, accounts for explanatory variables, and tests for an endogenous peer effect between MFIs. Results show that social capital—particularly friend networks and trust—has a direct influence on MFI performance, suggest that there is a tradeoff between outreach and sustainability, and proves that there is an endogenous peer effect between MFIs.
This thesis suggests that certain characteristics make victims of domestic violence and sexual assault more or less likely to seek a Temporary Protection Order (TPO). In Colorado Springs, CO, the annual number of sexual assaults is exceptionally high and domestic violence incidents are frequent. Using data from TESSA, the only agency that is serving victims in Colorado Springs and El Paso County, CO, this thesis examines self-reported victim characteristics in conjunction with TPO seeking behaviors. After analyzing the data with a probit regression, the results have shown that domestic violence and sexual assault are very different crimes, and that domestic violence victims and sexual assault victims display some important differences when it comes to reporting the crimes and seeking TPO’s. Victims of domestic violence are more likely to seek a protection order against an offender who was an acquaintance, but victims of sexual assault are less likely to seek a protection order against an acquaintance. At the same time, all victims demonstrated some similarities in TPO reporting. TESSA clients that lived in rural locations, that had lower annual familial incomes, and that were associated with the military were less likely, to varying degrees, to seek a TPO. The results of this thesis, if combined with community awareness, engagement and cooperation, have the potential to reduce the occurrence of domestic violence and sexual assault in Colorado Springs.
Given that financial constraints often stifle the impact of nonprofits, some social organizations have started to incorporate commercial aspects to avoid financial dependence. Such social enterprises innovatively combat global problems by fusing market-based strategies and philanthropic structures. Although its potential is uncontested, the social enterprise field is still relatively young and, to date, few hybrid companies have been effectively scaled. Specifically, social businesses face the unique challenge of operating in an interim sector with limited infrastructure development. This thesis investigates the sustainability of social enterprises by isolating specific variables associated with organizational success. This dissertation empirically tests for the correlation between financial health and access to leverage, use of a market-based strategy, board size, inclusion of women on the board, and business background of board members. This research also draws from interviews with prominent social entrepreneurs to elaborate on additional factors related to sustainability, such as strategic allocation of value to stakeholders, transparency of vision, brand development, and the organizational structure of the company. Overall, this thesis finds that board size is inversely correlated with financial success and demonstrates how cause-driven businesses can utilize stakeholder research to develop a competitive advantage.
When seeking a new home stadium, team owners in the National Football League (NFL) often argue that the addition of a new home field will help to ensure their team’s on-field success and generate more wins. Owners argue that a more competitive team will not only provide an increased public benefit, but that a new state-of-the-art stadium will result in a better team – perhaps one that can even contend for a Super Bowl Championship. The public cost of new multimillion-dollar (even billion dollar) stadia accounts for nearly two-thirds of the cost. Do owners have any rationale to prove their claim that new facilities increase their team’s success? This study investigates the true effect that a new stadium has on NFL teams’ overall regular season win-percentage to see if any statistically significant relationship actually exists.
Previous empirical research has found that perceived under-reward in relation to both internal and external pay referents negatively affects work attitudes such as pay satisfaction. Unjust procedures in the workplace have similar negative effects. This study compares the effects of internal pay comparisons, external pay comparisons, and procedural justice on professor work attitudes such as job satisfaction, morale, and turnover intentions. Results varied across outcomes, though internal pay comparisons and procedural justice were found to have the most consistently significant effects. Implications for faculty compensation policies are discussed.
In the year 2005 the National Basketball Association (NBA) implemented a new policy to its collective bargaining agreement (CBA). This new policy, Article X, said that a player entering the NBA draft must be at least 19 years old and a calendar year has passed since his graduation from high school for him to be eligible to enter the NBA Draft. This new policy forced many talented high school athletes to attend one year of college before entering the professional game, hence the “one and done rule.” This influx of talented freshman into college basketball may have shifted the competitive balance of NCAA Division I men’s basketball. A cross sectional time series analysis is used to investigate this claim, that the introduction of Article X affected the competitive balance of college basketball. The deviation of the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index of average conference winning percentage is used as the dependent measure of competitive balance in the regression equation. The main purpose of this study is to discover whether competitive balance in collegiate sports is affected by policies of their professional counterparts.
Since the formation of Kimana Group Ranch in 1972, land tenure in Loitokitok District has been based on a system of communally owned group ranches. Currently, only five group ranches remain, as Kimana has been fully subdivided. This study assessed the effects of subdivision on Kimana Group Ranch and forecasted the effects that subdivision will have on Mbirikani and Kuku Group Ranches. An emphasis was placed on diversification of land use and how that relates to the economy and ecosystem of the region. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 369 residents of the three group ranches. Interviews were also conducted with key informants, such as ministry officials, group ranch officials, and representatives from non-governmental organizations. Data was analyzed using a multiple regression linear probability model and chi-square goodness of fit statistical tests. GIS points were also analyzed to create a map of land plots that have and have not been sold within Kimana Group Ranch and the wildlife sanctuaries that it contains. Results showed that the factors that most greatly influence one’s decision to diversify their livelihood strategy are ethnic background, acres owned, and the perception that their current land use affects their opinion of subdivision. Diverse land uses such as leasing plots, conservation areas, and development are, unlike pastoralism and agriculture, not as susceptible to adverse affects from unforeseeable difficulties, such as drought. Community involvement in conservation and other sustainable economic endeavors is necessary for subdivision to be successful. It is also vital that landowners be educated on the importance of land so that they can make an informed decision about selling.
Currently, fossil fuels are the world’s primary energy source. However, the burning of fossil fuels, for energy, has many negative side effects. There is a growing consensus that burning fossil fuels leads to the greenhouse effect and global warming. The supply of fossil fuels is also finite. Thus, a clean and renewable energy source must eventually replace fossil fuels as our energy source. Wind power is currently the fastest growing, and most efficient, form of renewable energy. Wind power has the potential to unite profitable business with the protection of the environment. However, there are currently many non-price barriers that prohibit wind power from achieving its full potential. This paper takes a qualitative approach. Seven people involved with the wind industry are interviewed. This data is used to determine what barriers to wind power exist and how these barriers can be overcome. It also explores the need for the development of a Smart Grid to achieve the large-scale integration of renewable energy. The majority of the non-price barriers can be alleviated; however, the need for a Smart Grid still remains.
This thesis compares the market response to bidding banks of a merger in an expansionary period and a recessionary period upon the announcement of that merger. Bidding banks tend to see negative gains upon announcement of a merger. With the recent financial crisis, this thesis hypothesizes that in a recessionary period bidding banks will experience more negative gains than in an expansionary period due to the market's risk aversion during an economic recession and the lack of shareholder wealth maximization by management. Twenty-three bidding banks are examined to gauge the market's response to the bidding banks upon the announcement of a merger. To conduct this study, two methodologies are applied: Tobin's q and the Capital Asset Pricing Model. The results do not uphold the hypothesis showing no enhanced losses to bidding banks in the recession period. This thesis attempts to see if a recessionary period affects the way the market responds to bank mergers.
The role of culture in economic activities and outcomes is a subject debated mainly in the fields of sociology, anthropology, and political science. Recently, more economists are applying economic theory to engender new models that incorporate various aspects of culture, including widespread beliefs, values, and attitudes. Adding cultural variables to economic models has the potential to develop a better understanding of consumer choices on a microeconomics level. In addition, beliefs, attitudes, and values have the potential to explain differences in economic policies, growth, and activities on an international level. This thesis contributes to existing economic literature by 1) constructing a utility function for work ethic that includes religious and demographic variables, and 2) utilizing an Ordinary Least Squares regression with data from the World Values Survey. Controlling for socioeconomic status, income, health, education level, urbanization level, gender, and religious participation across 13 countries, religious denomination is not significant in determining work ethic. However, with the addition of interaction terms between religious denominations and demographic variables, certain religions have a significantly higher or lower work ethic than Protestants. In addition, almost all demographic variables are significant predictors of work ethic.
Many measures of course value are centered on student evaluations of teaching. Colorado College provides a unique opportunity to explore another method of valuing courses by looking at the Block Plan course auction. Kirby Nelson pioneered Block Plan bidding research last year by examining the relationship between Academic Departments and points bid on courses. One factor in course selection that remained unexamined was Professor. A multiple regression analysis is used to study the bidding data provided by the Colorado College Registrar. This thesis investigates the relationship between the professor teaching the course and the amount of points that students bid.
The effect of spatial factors on competition and the price of gasoline have been sparsely explored by previous studies. Existing work examines how gasoline prices differ based on distance from the distribution site as well as how cost factors influence gasoline prices. Using market data from six midsized U.S. metro areas with similar isolation from neighboring retail markets, this paper examines the effects of location on retail price, while controlling for brand effects. Spatial regression analysis accommodates the potential of spatially correlated errors, and sensitivity analysis tests for several measures of retail location concentration. Results point to reproducible brand premiums and some location-based price differences, but also show the counterintuitive finding that areas with more market competition do not show significantly lower retail gas prices.
Using over 250,000 U.S. patent citations, we test whether knowledge transfers in the energy sector are sensitive to distance, and whether that sensitivity has changed over time. Controlling for self-citation by inventor, assignee and examiner, multivariate regression analysis shows that physical distance is becoming less important for spillovers with time.
Appendix 1 to Block 7 2011 CC faculty meeting agenda, Gates Common Room; titled, "Assessment of General Education Requirements."
Minutes of the Colorado College Staff Council meeting held on December 7, 2010.
Minutes of the Colorado College Staff Council meeting held on March 1, 2011.
Minutes of the Colorado College Staff Council meeting held on June 14, 2011.
Minutes of the Colorado College Staff Council meeting held on May 3, 2011.
2011-2012 list of new tenure-track faculty at Colorado College.