In 2008, the World Health Organization's Intergovernmental Working Group (IGWG) released a global strategy and plan of action for boosting R&D of medicines for neglected diseases predominantly found in developing countries. Among other recommendations, the report advocates and prioritizes the promotion of local R&D capacity in developing countries as a solution to the absence of pharmaceutical drug innovation. In response to the primary assumption underlying the IGWG proposal, that innovation is a positive determinant of public health, the purpose of this study is to investigate the socioeconomic determinants of public health in developing countries as well as introduce innovative capacity as a potential factor influencing the level of health. This study will test whether public health is a function of innovative capacity using a cross-country regression that incorporates known determinants of public health. Fifty-nine developing countries are included in the sample, two different measures of public health are used, and nine independent variables are tested. A total of four regression models are used to explain the relationships between the variables. Innovative capacity is quantified in two different ways in order to increase the accuracy of the measure. Ultimately, the results of the study show that democracy, number of physicians, sanitation, infrastructure, and one of the measures of innovative capacity are statistically significant determinants of public health in developing countries. The conclusions of this study provides perspective on the IGWG proposal and enriches the discussion about what socioeconomic factors are most important to develop in order to achieve increased public health in developing countries.
For many years the National Hockey League was struggling to bring fans to their games. Due to such low attendance and salary caps, the National Hockey League decided to have a lockout in 2004-2005 which was the first ever season ending lockout in any sport. Since the lockout, attendance in the NHL slowly started to increase. This thesis looks at what factors affect attendance in the NHL since the lockout. Attendance was low before the lockout, but after the lockout attendance started to increase more and more every year. This thesis tests for what the NHL is doing right since the lockout so that they can continue to increase their attendance ratings even more. The research was taken from NHL.com, Versus. com, and ESPN.com. Data was found for all thirty NHL teams. A regression was used to test the data with the dependent variable being attendance. The independent variables are; goals scored, total points, winning percent, competitive balance, location, all-stars, games played, play-offs, weekend games, minor penalty minutes, and major penalty minutes. The regression found that four variables were significant in affecting attendance. These four variables were goals scored, location, minor penalty minutes, and major penalty minutes. This thesis proves that there are other factors besides game factors that affect attendance; however, the four game factors that affect attendance go along with the new rule changes that the NHL created after the lockout proving that the NHL is doing some of the right things to increase attendance in the NHL.
This study aims to determine the best possible option for the United States to reduce the number of disposable plastic carrier bags consumed each year. First an evaluation of the economic and environmental implications associated with disposable carrier bag use is discussed to justify the research question. An analysis of global plastic bag regulation is used to demonstrate strategies that can be pursued in the United States. Several initiatives have been introduced by city and state governments within the United States. to control plastic bag consumption. These examples are analyzed and discussed Retailers including Whole Foods, Wal-Mart, and IKEA have also chosen to voluntarily reduce the number of plastic bags used in their stores. The results of these voluntary initiatives are examined in case studies. Two surveys were conducted to compliment the qualitative analysis in this report with quantitative statistics used to predict plastic bag consumption. The results of this analysis indicates that the United States should balance voluntary reductions with legislative actions.
Consumer behavior revolves around individuals' ability to gather and assess all the visual information provided by the product in order to decide whether or not to purchase that product. Traditionally consumers' wine purchasing decisions have been viewed as a function of three variables: brand, region of origin, and price. However in the past decade, societies around the world have become more aware of their impacts on their surrounding environments and as a result a new kind of consumer has emerged. The eco-consumer, when given the choice, will prefer to use/consume a product that was produced with minimal or no effect on the environment. This thesis aims to explain individuals' wine purchasing decisions, and specifically examines whether consumers' wine choices are not just a function of brand, region of origin, and price, but are also influenced by an organic designation.
This thesis examines how different forms of participation impact the job satisfaction of blue-collar workers. By examining previous literature, satisfaction has shown to be beneficial for both the worker and the employer, but limited research has been done in the blue-collar sector of the workforce. Six types of participation were analyzed including: participation in work decisions, consultative participation, informal participation, short-term participation, representative participation, and employee ownership. In order to analyze these types of participation, four companies were used to interview twenty blue-collar employees. A qualitative approach was used to discover what employees thought about participation and satisfaction within their own companies, and participants were encouraged to tell stories of past experiences to exemplify their responses. Results suggested that informal participation, consultative participation and emotional attachment have the most impact on blue-collar employee satisfaction.
With the growing number of uninsured Americans, the aging baby-boomer population, and the increasing life expectancies, containing costs in order to still generate positive margins in hospitals is becoming exceedingly important. One financial and organizational trend for hospitals has been to join ranks with other hospitals to create hospital systems. This study tests the proposition that hospitals that are members of a hospital system are more likely to experience positive margins than independent hospitals. Based on the cross-sectional analysis of Colorado and Florida hospitals from 2001 and 2002, the study finds that hospitals from larger hospital systems generally achieve higher margin levels, giving financial incentive for hospitals to integrate themselves into large systems.
This thesis explores what economic factors had the greatest affects on the early 1990s commercial real estate recession and the current commercial real estate recession. Equity Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) are used as the measure of the commercial real estate market. The Hypothesis states that because of the fundamental differences between the two recessions, the influential factors will also be different. Through the use of an ordinary least squares regression, the hypothesis is tested using a series of asset pricing explanatory variables. The findings suggest that the hypothesis was correct and the two recessions are influenced by different explanatory variables.
The purpose of this study was to find out what effect tariff rates had on the territorial growth of late 19th century European, American, and Japanese empires. Many, if not most, historical studies of late 19th to early 20th century imperialism have explained it as a cultural phenomenon. Others have hypothesized that the territorial growth owes some explanation to protectionism. This study found that, given a three year lag, tariff rates can explain a little more than 50% of the aggregate territorial growth rate with diminished results when observing country-by-country.
Anthropocentric action is the dominant force behind accelerating environmental deterioration and climate change well above historical levels. Personal consumption habits are a significant contributor to rapid environmental devastation. The average diet of developed nations emphasizes animal protein consumption, particularly meat products from cattle, pigs, and chicken, as well as milk and eggs. The industrialized and highly concentrated primary crop and livestock production processes in the United States emit a large percentage of greenhouse gases, contribute to over-exploitation of increasingly scarce water resources, and erode soil. Environmental externalities, such as these, are not currently accounted in consumer prices for animal products. The effects of this market failure are multiplying as developing nations industrialize and begin to adopt the consumption habits of the developed nations. This thesis examines the impact of livestock production in the United States, beginning with crop production and processing for feed, and ending with slaughter and processing. The greenhouse gas emissions, water use, and soil erosion costs are identified, incorporated into current market prices in the form of a demand-side Pigouvian tax, and compared to current market prices. By assessing three significant environmental externalities and determining a conservative estimate of the respective costs of these externalities, this research demonstrates both the failure of the neoclassical market structure to account for the true price of livestock production, and the impact that personal dietary choices make on the global environment.
As the world enters a low carbon economy, companies must begin recognizing carbon emissions as a risk to doing business. This paper develops several regression models that test the effects of carbon emissions on company performance, whether or not carbon-intensive industries have been hurt, and the ability of the carbon to revenue ratio to capture a firm's risk exposure from carbon emissions. Carbon emissions data comes from the Carbon Disclosure Project and company performance data comes from Mergent Online. The paper concludes that carbon emissions are a liability to company performance, but carbon intensive industries have not been adversely affected. The carbon to revenue ratio does have a negative impact on company performance and may be used by companies as a measure of carbon efficiency.
This thesis analyzes the impact of identification regulations on aggregate voter turnout. It examines the presidential election cycles of 2000, 2004 and 2008 using a muItivariable regression analysis. While the raw results are statistically insignificant with regard to the impact of identification regulations affect on total voter participation, further analysis suggests a possible negative correlation. Additionally the research finds interesting disparities between the modeling of Republican and Democratic vote totals, primarily in that the explanatory power of the model is far greater for Republican vote totals.