In this paper, the author examines the role of counselors in public and private high schools. This study aims to identify if there exists a discrepancy in the role and responsibilities of counselors based on the type of school, whether high- or low-achieving, upper- or lower-class, private or public, etc. and what the implications of this possible discrepancy may be. Utilizing qualitative interviews of five counselors practicing at five unique schools, the study illustrates inconsistencies in the role and responsibilities of counselors at these contrasting schools. Similarly, this paper exposes a potentially significant positive relationship between socioeconomic status of public high schools and their increased similarity with private high schools over their public counterparts, and suggests the involvement of counselors in the elimination of larger social problems.
In the 1980s, the appearance of AIDS in urban centers of the United States unleashed a strong, and often condemnatory reaction from outspoken conservative Christians. With their digital and human networks, the fundamentalists used biblical and medieval rhetoric that stressed the intersection of sin and disease to enforce the idea that AIDS was a divine retribution for the behavior of gay men. Founded on premillennialism, biblical infallibility and the protestant sense of purpose, fundamentalists view America as sacred, susceptible and in rapid decline. In part because of these factors, fundamentalism has been inclined to create narratives of immanent demise to explain historical events. Their messages on AIDS were powerful and tapped into preexisting cultural anxieties around sex, illness and death. Unlike the trajectory of other diseases that had been interpreted as religion to promote the notion of sin, the fundamentalist construction of AIDS was countered by C. Everett Koop, the surgeon general of the United States, who followed his evangelical faith and used his position of power to change the course of the illness’ presence in America. By shifting the focus from asking why to saving lives, C. Everett Koop’s radical faith-based action began to re-write the cultural perception of AIDS. In this process, Koop stayed true to his two faiths, medicine and evangelical Christianity, and proceeded to discredit centuries of moralizing on illness as divine retribution. His disruption created the necessary foundation for serious action being taken to resolve the AIDS crisis. In providing factual information about the disease, allowed space for more moderate religious bodies and secular movements, such as ACT UP, to enter the public discourse, humanize the sick, and call America to action on finding a cure for AIDS.
Rising tuition in the United States is causing parents to become increasingly concerned with where their children should attend college. A liberal arts education is considered by many to be one of the best undergraduate educations money can buy. However, much scrutiny has arisen concerning whether more selective liberal arts college graduates receive higher future annual salaries when compared to less selective undergraduate college and university graduates. I hypothesize that liberal arts graduates will receive greater future annual salaries than non-liberal arts private and public college and university graduates. To test my hypothesis, I use data from the 2003 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study, which is a third follow-up of a national sample of students who completed their bachelor degrees at the end of the 1992-1993 academic year.
Teenage pregnancy and parenthood continues to be an issue of national health, despite the past two decades of declining teen pregnancy and birth rates. There are a number of different factors that have contributed to this decline, including sex education and a rapidly evolving political dialogue. This paper examines the determinants of teen pregnancy and teen birth rates across various race and ethnicity categories using an ordinary least squares regression model. Overall, the empirical results point towards comprehensive sex education and an increased political dialogue surrounding women’s reproductive rights as strong contributors to the decline, as well as acknowledging the importance of information and education regarding teenagers sexual decision making.
Income inequality has steadily increased in the United States since the census bureau began officially accounting for it in 1967. Over thirty-percent of American income has been concentrated with the top 5% of income earners since 1976. This study examines the notion that education expenditures have an equalizing effect on income inequality. Based on a panel dataset of fifty states over twenty years from 1986-2005, this research examines the effect of total current education expenditures and sector specific expenditures on the Gini-coefficient. A fixed effects regression model, applied with lagged expenditure data, shows that education only reduces income inequality in the long-run.
Projected increases in demand for postsecondary credentials in the labor market have exposed an immediate need for the United States to significantly increase its college attainment rate. The current growth rate of college tuition and fees, however, has been outstripping inflation for decades, and is limiting access for a growing number of would-be college students. Significant variance in college tuition and financial aid levels among states complicate the issue, having prevented researchers from finding the true indicators that govern college tuition levels. I posit that increased future earnings potential is one of these indicators causing tuition price variance throughout the U.S. Specifically, each state’s college wage premium – the amount a college graduate can expect to make over a high school graduate – causes its tuition prices through a supply/demand equilibrium. I hypothesize that the average public college tuition in a state is directly correlated with its college wage premium. Colleges in states with a high premium have a more valuable product and are able to charge more. I test this by collecting data from College Board and the U.S. Census Bureau on average college tuition and median-level college wage premium, and run a simple OLS regression to determine the strength of correlation. I then discuss my results in the context of the United States’ college attainment goals.
With the increasing frequency, natural disasters are affecting more and more people these days. We investigate the relationship between natural disasters and divorce rate in the United States, specifically through the channel of housing destruction. We used panel data of 50 states for the years 2000 to 2009 from multiple sources. Becker’s marriage model suggests that destruction of houses through natural disasters is a great shock to a marital-specific capital and may be a trigger for a divorce. OLS regression with fixed effect reports a positive and significant relationship between divorce rate and per capita property damage through natural disasters, as hypothesized. The result was robust after the white’s correction and instrumenting medium income and home price.
In the near future, Chinese automobile manufacturers will import Chinese made cars into the United States automobile market. This thesis analyzes consumer perception of Chinese cars among students at Colorado College. A new theoretical model is constructed to represent the different factors that impact how a consumer perceives products of different country-of-origins. This theoretical model is then adapted into an econometric model that studies the impact of the variables on a consumers overall perception of that good. A survey is designed to capture the independent variables of the econometric model and the data analyzed. The econometric model finds consumer evaluations of Chinese and American are positively impacted by the same variables. The raw data also suggests that consumers perceive Chinese cars to be less safe, built to a lower quality, and carry more risk than Japanese and American automobiles.
As the amount of money being circulated in the United States stock market increases, investors are presented with more opportunity to make a profit. Previous studies contradict one another on whether or not pattern recognition can yield above-average risk-adjusted returns in the market. The current study examines whether or not the Stock Broker's Almanac list of hot months can be implemented to identify a consistent pattern in the stock market. The numerical values collected for the stocks were tested and analyzed to determine whether the use of hot months is a profitable investment strategy in the stock market. Results indicate that seasonal investing may in fact be a successful strategy if properly applied to the United States stock market.
"This Beautiful City" is a provocative musical about the growth of the evangelical movement in Colorado Springs, created by the New York-based investigative theater company The Civilians and is the culmination of their residency in Colorado Springs in 2006. While conducting interviews with residents involved with or affected by the mega-church movement, scandal broke about New Life Church pastor Ted Haggard, providing the playâ€™s creators and the people of Colorado Springs with an unprecedented opportunity as those events unfolded. Part of Notable Lectures & Performances series, Colorado College. Recorded December 6, 2009.
Laurence Maslon is the co-creator of "Make 'Em Laugh: The Funny Business of America," a six-part series broadcast nationally by PBS. "Make 'Em Laugh" is the first documentary of its kind to give context to nearly 100 years of American comedy on stage, film, radio, television, and stand-up and to honor the geniuses who created our country's unique form of performance humor. Part of Notable Lectures & Performances series, Colorado College. Recorded March 9, 2009.
Candace Falk, Goldman biographer and director of the Emma Goldman Papers Project, uncovers the history and legacy of this influential American anarchist. Since 1980, the Emma Goldman Papers Project at the University of California-Berkeley has collected, organized, and edited tens of thousands of documents by and about Goldman from around the world. The leading authority on Goldman, Falk is the author of "Love, Anarchy, and Emma Goldman". Part of Notable Lectures & Performances series, Colorado College. Recorded September 23, 2010.
Van Jones, author of "The Green-Collar Economy," is currently a senior fellow at the Center For American Progress. Part of Notable Lectures & Performance series, Colorado College. Recorded March 3, 2011.
Gale Norton, the 48th Secretary of the U.S. Department of the Interior, made "the Four C's" the cornerstone of her tenure: Consultation, Communications, and Cooperation, all in the service of Conservation. At the heart of the Four C's is the belief that for conservation to be successful, the government must involve the people who live and work on the land. Part of Notable Lectures & Performances series, Colorado College. Recorded April 7, 2008.
Shortly after becoming President of the United States in 2009, Barack Obama was asked by a reporter in Strasbourg, France whether or not he adhered to a philosophy of American exceptionalism. The reporter intended to mean whether Obama believed the United States is uniquely qualified to lead the world. The President began his response with the following: “I believe in American exceptionalism, just as I suspect that the Brits believe in British exceptionalism and the Greeks believe in Greek exceptionalism.” A year later, Governor of Massachusetts Mitt Romney wrote a book where he alleges this response proves President Obama “doesn't believe [American exceptionalism] at all” and criticized him for that stance. Furthermore, President Obama's response was brought up again during the 2012 election when Governor Romney challenged him for the Presidency. Even though the quote above is only the beginning of his entire reply, the entire exchange highlights the role American exceptionalism still plays in the political sphere. My essay emphasizes three important questions: the definition of American exceptionalism, its previous and current role in politics, and assessments of its validity from both advocates and critics.
This paper concerns the pervasive inequalities in arts attendance and the larger consequences of that stratification. Situated within the changing art climate in America alongside emerging theories of cultural openness, omnivorism, and technological utopia, I studied participation in the arts and technology in America from years 1982 to 2012. Using data from the National Endowment of the Arts funded Survey for Public Participation in the Arts, I ran frequency statistics, bivariate tests, and logistic regressions on attendance, demographic, and technology variables. First, I found persistent gaps in cultural attendance, both inside and outside the home, with white, well educated, and older individuals visiting art museums, operas, craft fairs, and using the Internet far more than other groups. Second, I found that the Internet functions as a gateway to cultural institutions instead of replacing them–– looking at art online increases the propensity to look at art in a museum.
For decades the American corrections system has failed to provide adequate, much less successful rehabilitation to prison inmates. Paired with other factors contributing to crime, America has the unfortunate distinction of owning the world’s highest incarceration rate. Some prisons offer rehabilitation programs, many of which are very successful, but in an environment of fiscal austerity, they are often the first to be eliminated. Correctional industries are becoming more common in prisons due to their unique ability to be completely self-sufficient in requiring no government funding, as well as to provide meaningful rehabilitation that has a proven record of success. Private prisons have arisen as an alternative to relieve overcrowded public prisons. Some facilities are well managed and provide useful programs. Many private facilities, however, are purely profit-driven, and unless these facilities are held accountable to standards of financial transparency as well as meaningful rehabilitation, their numbers could grow malignantly and become nothing more than warehouses of captive labor for unscrupulous business ventures.
The United States healthcare industry is in need of reform to address the high financial cost of medical care, the dwindling health of the population, and the disorganization, complexity, and high cost of insurance. These healthcare inefficiencies and barriers to treatment create patient quality of care issues. Emergency medicine is a growing sector of healthcare, and this thesis examines how the macro level issues of the healthcare industry effect and relate to patient quality of care in the emergency room. Demographic and patient registration individual patient data was used to quantitatively examine the care received in the emergency room, finding that barriers to quality of emergency medical care more commonly lie in preexisting health issues or socioeconomic factors unrelated to the medical care actually received in the emergency room.
This thesis analyzes the relationship between societal wellbeing and life expectancy from an international sample. The United States has a significantly lower life expectancy at birth than other wealthy, foreign democracies. This paper evaluates the significance of a multitude of diverse variables, such as obesity, education, alcohol consumption, and purchasing power (collectively referred to societal wellbeing), in explaining the variance of life expectancy at birth from an international sample. The data covers societal wellbeing indicators of the international sample from 1980-2009. An OLS regression is used to determine the importance of each variable in explaining the variance of life expectancy. Foreign healthcare models that effectively address these nonmedical determinants of longevity will be used to suggest policy for healthcare reform in the United States. Healthcare reform is an incredibly intricate topic that can be approached from a variety of methods. How does societal wellbeing affect longevity? What are the sources of variance between other countries and the United States? How can these variances be used to prescribe policy for healthcare reform in the U.S.? These questions are integral to addressing the topic of healthcare reform and demonstrate the importance of international collaboration to improve the health of our nations’ population.
Current legislation seeks to label China a “currency manipulator” due to its allegedly unfair trade practices. The coincidence of increased Sino-US trade flows with domestic job loss in manufacturing fuels a great deal of the growing anti-China sentiment in the US. Proponents of the Exchange Rate Oversight Reform Act attribute America’s long-experienced decline in manufacturing employment to competition from rising Chinese imports, therefore advocating protectionist measures. This thesis examines the validity of such claims, suggesting the possible significance of technologically-induced productivity gains rather than increased trade liberalization. Employing an ordinary least squares regression model, this study tests for the determinants of manufacturing job-loss between 1983 and 2005. Results of this study indicate the significance not only of increased imports from China, but from the entirety of the US’s low-wage trading partners. However, negligible significance is attributed to enhanced productivity during this period.
Existing literature on hospital pricing and price variation is split on whether price differentials in hospital billing are demand or supply led. To harmonize this literature, we use data from the Medicare Hospital Compare website to evaluate the interaction between demand and supply factors that influence hospital pricing structure. We use consumers’ net willingness-to-pay (net WTP) as the dependent variable to analyze how providers exploit factors that enable a provider to charge high prices to consumers. We find that high prices are reflective of the perceived quality but find no relationship with the actual quality of care. In line with previous literature, our analysis shows no evidence of cross- subsidization between inpatient DRGs. However, we find no interaction of factors that could adequately explain the full extent of observed variation in provider prices. We conclude that the question, “Should I buy here or keep driving?” is complex and cannot be answered by a simple analysis of which healthcare provider is cheaper.
This study investigates the potential impact of illegal off-label promotion on the sales of the top selling pharmaceuticals in a U.S. market. Drawing from a dataset of the top 200 drugs by sales from 2004-2010, this is the first study to incorporate a measurement of illegal off-label promotion and the effect it has on the sales of drug products. The rising usage and litigation involved in off-label drug use underlines the importance of the current study. This study found that on average, a drug that is promoted for off-label uses can increase its sales by up to 18 percent.
This study looks at the determinants of green goods and services (GGS) employment in the U.S. and specifically how high levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions negatively affects green job growth. Previous studies on political, economic, and social factors were reviewed to generate the two-year (2010-2011) empirical model. The significant results found from the OLS regression include a negative effect of CO2 emissions on GGS employment. This paper indicates significant variables that can help researchers and policy makers understand what comprises green employment.
With the growing concern about climate change, integrated impact assessment models (IAMs) have been developed to assess climate mitigation policies. Previous attempts to endogenize technology into regional climate policy models have assumed learning-by-doing or include a single energy sector. This study corrects for the previous limitations in a regional model of the United States and the rest of the world. A backstop technology and knowledge spillovers are added to the model to improve the model’s capacity to simulate a real policy. Each specification is then simulated under no policy (business as usual), an optimal policy, and restrictions of emissions back to 1995 levels. Since the United States has refused to ratify the Kyoto Protocol, it is particularly important to evaluate climate policies specific to the United States, like the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI). This study also aims to evaluate the effectiveness the RGGI by modeling permit-funded R&D in the energy sector.