The American image of the hero underwent a paradigmatic shift in the twentieth century. This thesis examines the traditional model of the hero, why there has been a move away from that model, and the replacement archetypes we currently see today.
Shortly after becoming President of the United States in 2009, Barack Obama was asked by a reporter in Strasbourg, France whether or not he adhered to a philosophy of American exceptionalism. The reporter intended to mean whether Obama believed the United States is uniquely qualified to lead the world. The President began his response with the following: “I believe in American exceptionalism, just as I suspect that the Brits believe in British exceptionalism and the Greeks believe in Greek exceptionalism.” A year later, Governor of Massachusetts Mitt Romney wrote a book where he alleges this response proves President Obama “doesn't believe [American exceptionalism] at all” and criticized him for that stance. Furthermore, President Obama's response was brought up again during the 2012 election when Governor Romney challenged him for the Presidency. Even though the quote above is only the beginning of his entire reply, the entire exchange highlights the role American exceptionalism still plays in the political sphere. My essay emphasizes three important questions: the definition of American exceptionalism, its previous and current role in politics, and assessments of its validity from both advocates and critics.
The Civil Liberties Act of 1988 looked like a bill doomed to fail; it was proposed by, and sought for the benefit of a small racial minority with little political power, under a fiscally conservative Republican administration. No such apology had ever been given to African-Americans or Native-Americans for the injustices suffered. Why, then, did it pass? A content analysis method of the floor debates is used to identify several central themes, three theories are applied in an attempt to explain the bill’s passage. A pluralist model of lawmaking is appealing because of the agency it affords to Japanese- Americans in the bill’s passage, yet naively ignores the obvious structural racism that persists in America. Elite theory addresses this inequality, but to the detriment of Japanese-Americans by robbing them of any influence they exerted in the legislative process. Structural contradiction theory is ultimately most satisfying when improved by the inclusion of an institutional production model. This theory provides a more nuanced and less deterministic theory, while allowing for minority group agency in a singular instance. Through this model we can understand the skillful manner in which Japanese-American interest groups seized the favorable ‘cultural context’ of a country yearning for an affirmation of justice, liberty, and equality. They dexterously framed the Civil Liberties Act as one that would fulfill this need, depicting it as a bill for the common good. This case study is illustrative of the manner in which a historically powerless racial minority could momentarily wield great political power by obscuring their own voice and aligning their own interests with those of the collective.
In the 1980s, the appearance of AIDS in urban centers of the United States unleashed a strong, and often condemnatory reaction from outspoken conservative Christians. With their digital and human networks, the fundamentalists used biblical and medieval rhetoric that stressed the intersection of sin and disease to enforce the idea that AIDS was a divine retribution for the behavior of gay men. Founded on premillennialism, biblical infallibility and the protestant sense of purpose, fundamentalists view America as sacred, susceptible and in rapid decline. In part because of these factors, fundamentalism has been inclined to create narratives of immanent demise to explain historical events. Their messages on AIDS were powerful and tapped into preexisting cultural anxieties around sex, illness and death. Unlike the trajectory of other diseases that had been interpreted as religion to promote the notion of sin, the fundamentalist construction of AIDS was countered by C. Everett Koop, the surgeon general of the United States, who followed his evangelical faith and used his position of power to change the course of the illness’ presence in America. By shifting the focus from asking why to saving lives, C. Everett Koop’s radical faith-based action began to re-write the cultural perception of AIDS. In this process, Koop stayed true to his two faiths, medicine and evangelical Christianity, and proceeded to discredit centuries of moralizing on illness as divine retribution. His disruption created the necessary foundation for serious action being taken to resolve the AIDS crisis. In providing factual information about the disease, allowed space for more moderate religious bodies and secular movements, such as ACT UP, to enter the public discourse, humanize the sick, and call America to action on finding a cure for AIDS.
The tearoom is a masterpiece of traditional Japanese architectural design and artisanship. It incorporates both formal shoin-style elements, based on the design of a study or library in a Buddhist temple, as well as the sukiya elements of a humble cottage. The circular window of the tearoom is not designed for looking outward. It is kept shut so that guests focus inward and ultimately reflect on their own state of mind. Zen scrolls often depict the mind with a circle written in one brush stroke. The subdued light in a tearoom lends itself to contemplation.
Since its introduction in the late 1990’s, broadband internet has significantly impacted the way societies and economies function. Literature suggests that there is a positive relationship between broadband penetration rates and economic growth rates. Because broadband achieves faster speeds that non-broadband connections, these findings indicate a possible link between broadband speeds and general well-being. Using panel data from 50 US states and the District of Columbia, we estimate the association between broadband speeds and US state level GDP growth. We find that broadband speeds have a positive and significant effect on GDP growth rates for the US from 2009-2011. Considering the controversy surrounding the change to Federal Communications Commission’s net neutrality and internet speed regulation policy in February 2015, these results are particularly relevant.
The investigation of the relationship between income and happiness can provide important insights into human’s material aspirations. By redefining the application of the term utility, economics can be used to understand how money affects our happiness. Today and in past years at a given point in time those with higher incomes are indeed happier than those with lower incomes. However, raising the incomes of a nation does not make that nation any happier. These conclusions are suggested by data on reported happiness and income collected in the United States over the past forty years. The paradox that takes place in this relationship has important public policy implications and raises doubts on the primary economic goal of growth in GDP. This thesis hopes to stimulate a debate that questions some of the basic tenets of economic theory that regard the use of GDP as a measure of welfare and the simplistic and limiting role that is applied to individuals in behavior models.
This study investigates the potential impact of illegal off-label promotion on the sales of the top selling pharmaceuticals in a U.S. market. Drawing from a dataset of the top 200 drugs by sales from 2004-2010, this is the first study to incorporate a measurement of illegal off-label promotion and the effect it has on the sales of drug products. The rising usage and litigation involved in off-label drug use underlines the importance of the current study. This study found that on average, a drug that is promoted for off-label uses can increase its sales by up to 18 percent.
Using a multinomial logit regression, this thesis shows that there is a significant portion of homeowners that are willing and able to improve their home energy efficiency by improving their windows or insulation without receiving a monetary incentive from a utility or government. Accordingly, utilities are unable to claim energy savings from projects completed by these homeowners. Thus, some homeowners and utilities alike would be better off using a third-party private business to foster energy efficiency.
This study looks at the determinants of green goods and services (GGS) employment in the U.S. and specifically how high levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions negatively affects green job growth. Previous studies on political, economic, and social factors were reviewed to generate the two-year (2010-2011) empirical model. The significant results found from the OLS regression include a negative effect of CO2 emissions on GGS employment. This paper indicates significant variables that can help researchers and policy makers understand what comprises green employment.
Government-sponsored educational benefit programs for veterans have evolved throughout the years to meet the needs of military students. The growth of these programs has had a significant impact on schools’ growth and proliferation, and they are often considered partially responsible for the shift in cultural perception of post-secondary learning. As the value of a post-secondary degree has increased exponentially over the years, veteran benefit programs have evolved to meet the changing needs of veteran students. The relatively recent proliferation of for-profit colleges and universities is sometimes considered a threat to the effectiveness of these programs, as they aggressively target and recruit students with eligibility for these military benefits. In considering the subpar financial outcomes of for-profit schools graduates, we seek to determine the effects that the growth of these schools has had of the effectiveness of educational benefits for veterans. We find that receipt of veterans’ benefits increases the chances of enrolling at a for-profit school while limiting students’ satisfaction with the academic programs. Though the effects on deciding if and how to pursue higher education are negligible, the decreased satisfaction combined with the higher chance of enrollment at a for-profit school suggest a serious decrease in the effectiveness of these programs.
Major League Soccer is a growing league within the United States. Although soccer is not an American sport, it is growing increasingly more popular. Using a simple OLS regression this thesis provides insight into factors that drive attendance in Major League Soccer. The purpose of this thesis is to determine the factors that increase attendance to help the struggling franchises grow their fan base.
Beginning in the early 1960's, local governments throughout the United States have implemented growth management policies intended to influence the pattern of development and restrict growth. These regulations affect the conditions of community life by increasing property values, shifting demographics, and altering the delivery of public services. This thesis examines these effects through case studies of the City of Boulder, the City of Berkeley, and the City of Fort Collins, using data primarily from the US Census Bureau. It is hypothesized that the city with the most growth management policies will experience these effects to a greater magnitude. This was found to be partly true; there are other overriding factors that contribute to these changes more so than the presence or absence of growth management policies.
T. R. Reid, a prizewinning Washington Post reporter and the author of several books, including "The Healing of America" and "The United States of Europe," is a frequent guest on NPR and has narrated and produced several PBS documentaries. Part of Notable Lectures & Performances series, Colorado College. Recorded March 4, 2010.
Donna Brazile is founder and managing director of Brazile and Associates, LLC, chair of the Democratic National Committee's Voting Rights Institute (VRI) and an adjunct professor at Georgetown University. She is a senior political strategist and former campaign manager for Gore-Lieberman 2000, a weekly contributor and political commentator on CNN, and a veteran of numerous national and statewide campaigns. Part of Notable Lectures & Performances series, Colorado College. Recorded April 2, 2007.
Colorado College Distinguished Lecturer and Legal Scholar-in-Residence Phil Kannan says Hispanics have been the victims of discriminatory laws and policies in almost every part of their lives in the U.S. including housing, voting, employment, medical care and education. Hispanics in the Southwest turned to federal courts to challenge state and local laws, and policies regarding education. This presentation will look at the most significant of those court battles. Recorded September 13, 2006.
Historic documentation of life at the turn of the 19th century created by residents of Colorado Springs, Colorado in 1901 for the citizens of 2001. Under the direction of Louis R. Ehrich, a prominent 19th century businessman, the items were sealed in a chest which was stored in various buildings on the Colorado College campus until the official opening January 1, 2001 at the Charles Leaming Tutt Library. Contents of Ms349, Fd 25, National politics - William A. Platt include:1 9-page, handwritten letter, undated, titled “A Message on National Politics,” signed by William Alexander Platt, Editor of the Evening Mail.
Biological diversity includes the variance in genes, organisms, and relationships found in nature. Also called biodiversity, it provides countless economic, social, and personal benefits to people in the United States and all over the world. In the U.S., this is recognized by the federal government most explicitly in the Endangered Species Act’s protections for those flora and fauna whose survival is least likely and most endangered by human action. Unfortunately, there are many anthropogenic threats to biological diversity. In order to protect this incredible natural resource, responsible management must be implemented across all levels of government. Given the amount of funding, large spatial scales, and public interest at stake, the federal government is the best suited to this task. The federal government must play a key role in the protection of biological diversity. The purpose of this paper is to provide a qualitative analysis of the federal government’s management of biological diversity in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Examining management at these scales is uncommon, yet extremely valuable. By examining management on scales that coincide with the scale of natural processes, we can better see the broad implications and interactions of our management policies. We can also determine how to sharpen management in order to more accurately address these important scales. In order to achieve this, a basic overview of modern conservation science and terms to be utilized will be provided. Building upon this overview, four categories will be describe, which, according to the science, are vital to the preservation of biological diversity. These categories are cores, connectivity, restoration, and monitoring. There will be three standards used to assess the quality of policy. Scientific foundations, the human-nature nexus, and adaptability are these three measures. The Greater Yellowstone ecosystem will then be described. Finally, in each of the four categories, examples of policy or management action will be described and analyzed via the three measures of successful policy. This analysis shall provide examples of policies with varying degrees of success. By extrapolating management from these representative case studies, an aggregate picture of management across the ecosystem will be gained. It is hoped that such analysis will uncover areas where management may be improved and facilitate the spread of successful policies and management ideas. It is also intended as a suitable framework for examining and creating biodiversity management policies in other ecosystems, regions, and countries.
A political science thesis examining the impact of the 2010 Affordable Care Act on the cost of health care in the United States. The incentives of the participants in the health care market are analyzed in order to explain why health care costs continue to grow. This thesis also looks at the why the Affordable Care Act became law and provides a conclusion on the likely success of the Affordable Care Act at controlling health care cost growth.
Rates of domestic violence remain high in America despite many actions being taken against it. Though both men and women can be perpetrators of domestic violence, most often domestic violence is committed by men against women. Previous studies on the topic find that traditional masculine values and masculine gender role stress increase the likeliness of a man committing violence, and that gender role stress is higher in men who experience a form of masculinity marginalized from the hegemonic masculine ideal. In the present study I examine the effect that both traditional masculine values and hegemonic masculinity has on prevalence of male perpetrated domestic violence. I use six of the nine U.S. Census regions to carry out the study. By finding the average score or level of traditional masculine values, hegemonic masculinity, and prevalence of male perpetration in each of the six regions, I was able to observe the effect had on prevalence of male perpetration when traditional masculine values and hegemonic masculinity are present in the region. The goal was to find out if stronger traditional masculine values and lower access to the hegemonic masculine ideal in a region would lead to higher rates of male perpetrated domestic violence in that region. The results support both the previous findings and hypothesis, and also highlight the lowering effect that hegemonic masculinity has on rates of male perpetrated domestic violence.
This study explores how upper and middle-upper-class married mothers living in the United States frame and understand the personal and professional implications of opting-out. Opting-out entails women leaving high-profile jobs for more flexible work arrangements or to stay at home. These women have heavily invested in their educations and have promotion opportunities, which makes their decision to opt out of high-powered positions perplexing. Structural functionalism and symbolic interactionism frame this research question. Bourdieu’s concept of habitus links both theories to show how women “do gender.” In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 working mothers who opted out to raise their children. The study found that for interviewees the ideal American mother is a working woman who is obsessed with her children’s success. It also confirmed the friction between stay-at-home mothers and working mothers, known as the “mommy wars.” For stay-at-home mothers the cost associated with their choice is a career penalty; for working mothers it is the feeling of guilt of being partially present in their children’s upbringing. This study argues for policies that aim for a better work-family balance and shared parenthood and which diminish the penalties, both financial and tacit, for working mothers and mothers returning to the workforce.
Colorized postcard, dated October 10, 1908, with English script at bottom of two children in traditional dress in San Francisco's Chinatown. Inscription reads: "10/10/08 Hey Billy, which is the boy and which is the girl? Guess and I will send it to you --Y.E. (?)" Printed red text along bottom reads: "No. 16, San Francisco, California. Chinese Aristocrats. Reduced to poverty by earthquake and fire. April 18, 1906."