Sex trafficking of women in post-Soviet Russia is an expansive, pervasive and largely unmitigated problem. Hundreds of thousands of women are trafficked annually into the extremely violent, brutal, coercive and manipulative world of forced prostitution. The causes of this fundamental human rights problem are multitude and highly intertwined. The primary causes of sex trafficking in post-Soviet Russia are organized crime and patriarchy. Both of these factors have roots in the Soviet period, but it was their evolution during the transition to market-democracy which led to the burgeoning of sex trafficking. The transitional period allowed for organized crime and patriarchy to be free of Soviet restraints and subsequently become more powerful, intense, and unbounded. Organized crime entrenched itself in practically all areas of society primarily through near domination of the economy and infiltration of the political sphere. As part of the rejection of the more feminist aspects of communism in post-Soviet Russia, patriarchy became institutionalized in the economic, political, and social spheres. The combination of organized crime and patriarchy, coupled with the gendered effects of the transition, resulted in an overall Russian society that was and continues to be oppressive, demeaning, physically harmful, and unfriendly toward women. Women in post-Soviet Russia are essentially second-class citizens; the government is unresponsive to most female-oriented problems. Russian women have also experienced a feminization of poverty, extremely high unemployment, and a lack of legitimate economic opportunities. The dire economic circumstances and the patriarchal atmosphere in post-Soviet Russia have disproportionately hurt women. As a result, women increasingly began to look abroad in hopes of attaining a better life and good job. A staggering number of women then become victims of sex trafficking in the process of attempting to emigrate. It is important to understand that it is the combination of organized crime and patriarchy, and all the permeating effects of both, that has caused pervasive sex trafficking. Both factors were equally critical in shaping the environment against which women were reacting, and becoming victims of forced prostitution in the process. Sex trafficking of women in post-Soviet Russia is largely overlooked and will continue to grow until the Russian government begins to take the problem seriously and addresses the negative influences of organized crime and patriarchy.
To this very day, debate among historians continues concerning the critical points in the relations between Russia and the Byzantine Empire and the truth of four important points in Russian history: (1) Russia’s political origins, (2) the extent of Byzantine influence on Russian society, (3) the impact of the Golden Horde on Russo-Byzantine relations, and (4) the prevalence of the “Third Rome” theory in the rise of Muscovite Russia--how this led to the Western interpretation of Russian expansionism during eighteenth- and nineteenth-century imperialism and twentieth-century communism. Understanding Russia’s Byzantine-derived cultural and religious heritage yields a clearer understanding of Russia’s place in the world today. The focus of this thesis is on the extent of the political, religious, and cultural impact of the Byzantine Empire on Medieval Russia and the rise of Moscow as the “Third Rome.” The advancement of Russian self-identification as the center of Orthodoxy after the Turkish invasion of Constantinople will also be investigated. Different historiographical perspectives ranging from the opinions of Western, Soviet, and Russian historians take into account the original documents of the Byzantine and Russian medieval Orthodox Church, the Russian Chronicles, and the testaments of Russian princes and tsars.
This paper examines if the Russians already in the NHL (National Hockey League) are being paid a premium due to the competition for their services from the KHL (Kontinental Hockey League). This paper assesses the determinants of player salaries in the NHL. Data was collected over the 2011-2012 season to the 2015-2016 season in the NHL. I find that player production and Russian nationality are significant determinants of NHL player salaries.