Urbanization and anthropogenic development across North America are contributing to habitat loss and fragmentation. Urbanization also alters surface water systems, resulting in the elimination, alteration, and creation of aquatic ecosystems. Habitat loss is one factor contributing to the current native bee and honeybee (Apis mellifera) population declines across the continent. Previous studies on the effect of urbanization on bee populations have produced conflicting results, which suggest that further research is required. The effect of surface water availability on bee populations is not well studied. Using bee bowl traps and sweep net sampling techniques in household yards across the Twin Cities in Minnesota, I assessed bee abundance and bee community composition across an urban to rural gradient using housing density as a measure of degree of urbanization. I also examined and compared bee communities in yard sites both near to and far from major surface waters. Specifically, I tested the hypothesis that bee community assemblages are affected by both housing density and proximity to water, independently. I found no significant difference in bee abundance across the urban to rural gradient or at varying distances from water. However, I found a positive correlation between yard size and bee abundance and a significantly different community composition of bees near to and far from water. The results of this study imply that bee populations are not affected by housing density alone, and that other factors, such as habitat patch size as measured by yard size, may be contributing to reported declines in bee populations. Results also imply that altering surface waters in urban areas can impact bee community composition. These results can help guide future studies and inform urban planning and surface water alteration methods in order to conserve bee populations.
The construction of Major League stadiums has been booming across North America since the early nineteen nineties. The question becomes whether or not the promised benefits from team owners to sway government officials is really worth the millions of dollars invested on these venues. I set my research out to determine whether these vastly large investments bring an economic impact to a given metropolitan area. This topic has been previously researched therefore I based my research off of previous studies on this topic. Various different variables were used to collected data from government resources to accurately depict the economic impact. My research will be collected to look into the economic impact of venues in the National Football League between 1990-2013 to determine the impact on metropolitan areas across the United States, to ultimately predict how the Minnesota Vikings stadium when completed will affect the Minneapolis metropolitan area.