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  • Thumbnail for Zar Zari Zar Baksh Dargah, ritual of thanksgiving for child, older brother with infant
    Zar Zari Zar Baksh Dargah, ritual of thanksgiving for child, older brother with infant

    Small older brother has accompanied his family for this ritual celebrating the birth and health of his siblings and cousins. [For description of the ritual, see cbind0043.]

  • Thumbnail for Aurangzeb Mosque main clock
    Aurangzeb Mosque main clock

    Every mosque prominently displays a clock. The clock reminds Muslims of the injunction to pray five times daily. This colorfully painted and decorated clock is located on a pillar just in front of the mehrab and notes the subsequent prayer time.

  • Thumbnail for Zar Zari Zar Baksh Dargah, cloth seller
    Zar Zari Zar Baksh Dargah, cloth seller

    Just outside the entrance to the dargah, a man sells bright colored cloths some with gold-embroidered prayers Pilgrims have these cloths blessed inside the dargah and then save them to be used as funeral shrouds.

  • Thumbnail for Zar Zari Zar Baksh tomb entrance
    Zar Zari Zar Baksh tomb entrance

    The doorway opens into a closed circular room housing a sarcophagus to represent the tomb of the saint, Zar Zari Zar Baksh. A domed roof covers this tomb shrine. Men enter this room and pray next to the tomb while women pray at the doorway. Both men and women are touched with a peacock feather on each shoulder as a symbol of the blessings received by all who pray at this site.

  • Thumbnail for Zar Zari Zar Baksh Dargah, ritual of thanksgiving for child, weighing baskets for ritual
    Zar Zari Zar Baksh Dargah, ritual of thanksgiving for child, weighing baskets for ritual

    These two metal baskets used for the child weighing ritual are connected by a thick rope positioned over the strong limb of a tree in the courtyard of the dargah. [For description of the ritual, see cbind0043.]

  • Thumbnail for Khuldabad, Aurangzeb Mosque minarets
    Khuldabad, Aurangzeb Mosque minarets

    The speakers visible in this photo are used to announce the call to prayer.

  • Thumbnail for Aurangzeb Mosque, sign
    Aurangzeb Mosque, sign

    Sign in English and Hindi for the Tomb of the last Mughal Emperor, Aurangzeb. Behind this sign is a small sign explaining that anyone who vandalizes this monument will be subject to imprisonment of up to three months, a fine of up to 5000 rupees [more than $100], or both.

  • Thumbnail for Aurangzeb Mosque, Qur'anic inscription
    Aurangzeb Mosque, Qur'anic inscription

    Passages from the Qur'an are used as decorations and as reminders of the presence of God in homes and in public places, as well as in mosques.

  • Thumbnail for Aurangzeb Mosque and Tomb, sign
    Aurangzeb Mosque and Tomb, sign

    This sign in the courtyard of the mosque complex explains that this area contains the Shrine of the saint, Zainuddin, and the tomb of the son of Aurangzeb, Azamshah. The sign is written in English, Hindi, and Urdu.

  • Thumbnail for Khuldabad, Aurangzeb Mosque
    Khuldabad, Aurangzeb Mosque

    Before entering this verandah area, men remove their shoes and perform the ritual ablutions before prayer. On this open platform, men from the community pray at the five designated times during the day.

  • Thumbnail for Zar Zari Zar Baksh Dargah, ritual of thanksgiving for child, mothers and children waiting for ritual
    Zar Zari Zar Baksh Dargah, ritual of thanksgiving for child, mothers and children waiting for ritual

    These women are holding their female and male children as they wait to perform the ritual of thanksgiving. Many women visiting the shrine note that the prayers of women offered at the dargah are understood to be more efficacious than those of men. [For description of the ritual, see cbind0043.]

  • Thumbnail for Zar Zari Zar Baksh Dargah, ritual of thanksgiving for child, infant in weighing basket
    Zar Zari Zar Baksh Dargah, ritual of thanksgiving for child, infant in weighing basket

    Child lying patiently in the metal basket waiting to be weighed against the sweetbreads in the other basket. [For description of this Thanksgiving Ritual, see cbind0043.]

  • Thumbnail for Zar Zari Zar Baksh Dargah, ritual of thanksgiving for child, family members waiting for ritual
    Zar Zari Zar Baksh Dargah, ritual of thanksgiving for child, family members waiting for ritual

    Family members wait to perform the ritual thanking the saint for helping them to conceive a healthy child.

  • Thumbnail for Zar Zari Zar Baksh, pilgrims at the tomb shrine of the saint' s mother
    Zar Zari Zar Baksh, pilgrims at the tomb shrine of the saint' s mother

    A couple has come to pray at the Tomb Shrine of the mother of Zar Zari Zar Baksh to petition her for help in conceiving a child. The prayers of women at these two shrines are thought to be more efficacious than those of men. So many women make the pilgrimage to pray at these shrines.

  • Thumbnail for Zar Zari Zar Baksh Dargah, flower seller
    Zar Zari Zar Baksh Dargah, flower seller

    Just outside the entranceway into the dargah, a woman makes and sells flower garlands for pilgrims to offer inside. At the next stall, green glass bangles hung from the roof are sold for the ritual performed at the tomb shrine of the saint's mother.

  • Thumbnail for Zar Zari Zar Baksh inner courtyard
    Zar Zari Zar Baksh inner courtyard

    After walking up the stairs and through the arched main entranceway to the dargah, one enters the courtyard which leads to another set of steps and another arched entrance. Behind that doorway lies the tomb of the saint, Zar Zari Zar Baksh, and a second tomb for the mother of the saint. Both of these tombs are sacred sites, important to pilgrims seeking help and consolation.

  • Thumbnail for Zar Zari Zar Baksh Dargah, ritual of thanksgiving for child, child balanced with sweetbreads
    Zar Zari Zar Baksh Dargah, ritual of thanksgiving for child, child balanced with sweetbreads

    The child dressed in a beautiful peach dress and blue scarf sits patiently as her weight balances the sweetbreads on the other side, determining the contribution of her familiy to the community. [See cbind0043 for description of this Thanksgiving Ritual.]

  • Thumbnail for Khuldabad, Aurangzeb Mosque, Mehrab
    Khuldabad, Aurangzeb Mosque, Mehrab

    The niche in the wall, the mehrab, is placed in the direction of Mecca so that all facing the mehrab for prayer will also be facing Mecca. On the wall are the names Allah and Muhammad representing the creedal statement, the Shahada: There exists only one God and Muhammad is his messenger. Also, on the wall is the clock, a reminder of the 5 daily prayer times.

  • Thumbnail for Aurangzeb Mosque, ritual ablutions before prayer
    Aurangzeb Mosque, ritual ablutions before prayer

    Before praying, all Muslim worshippers must purify themselves by performing ritual ablutions. Mosques provide fountains or individual water spigots so that each person can carry out this ritual cleansing.

  • Thumbnail for Aurangzeb Mosque perfume kiosk
    Aurangzeb Mosque perfume kiosk

    Outside many mosques in India, small shops sell perfumes and small ornaments. Before prayer, all must perform ritual ablutions to purify oneself. From an early period, perfumes have been associated with the idea of purification.

  • Thumbnail for Zar Zari Zar Baksh Dargah, bangles as symbols of pilgrims' petitions
    Zar Zari Zar Baksh Dargah, bangles as symbols of pilgrims' petitions

    At the Tomb Shrine of the mother of Zar Zari Zar Baksh, women tie glass bangles over the door lintel into the shrine room as symbols of their petitions.

  • Thumbnail for Zar Zari Zar Baksh Dargah prayer clock
    Zar Zari Zar Baksh Dargah prayer clock

    A reminder of the Quranic injunction to pray five times a day. At 4:45 p.m., the next prayer time is posted for 19:00. This prayer, the Maghrib, is the fourth of the day to be performed just after sunset.

  • Thumbnail for Zar Zari Zar Baksh, mother's tomb shrine
    Zar Zari Zar Baksh, mother's tomb shrine

    Within a few yards of the tomb shrine of Zar Zari Zar Baksh lies the tomb shrine of his mother, also understood to intercede with God on the behalf of pilgrims. Women pilgrims often pray to her to help them conceive a child.

  • Thumbnail for Khuldabad, dome of the Aurangzeb Mosque
    Khuldabad, dome of the Aurangzeb Mosque

    A staunchly religious man, Aurangzeb enforced Sharia law for all, forbidding drinking and gambling in his realm, and reinstating the hated jizya tax on non-Muslims.

  • Thumbnail for Zar Zari Zar Baksh Dargah, ritual of thanksgiving for child
    Zar Zari Zar Baksh Dargah, ritual of thanksgiving for child

    At this shrine, couples pray to the saint, Zar Zari Zar Baksh, for his help in conceiving a healthy child. When the child is old enough, the couples promise tol return and make an offering of thanksgiving. This ritual consists of distributing sweetbreads equal in weight to that of the child. To determine this weight, two metal crates are balanced by a rope hanging over the limb of a large tree in the courtyard of the dargah. Often travelling from great distances, families dress in their finest clothes and bring many family members to share in this festive celebratory ritual.