This paper estimates the association between HIV knowledge and risky sexual behavior in India. Using data from the third wave of the national demographic survey, we find that better HIV related knowledge does not always promote safer sexual practices. While, better HIV knowledge increases the likelihood of condom use, it also increases the likelihood of premarital sex, and reduces the likelihood of abstinence. These effects are much stronger for males when compared to females. These results also suggest, albeit indirectly, that informational and condom distribution campaigns are not necessarily promoting safer sexual practices in India.
This paper aims to understand the AIDS concern in India by analyzing two different relations. The first model studies the effect of media sources such as newspapers, radios and television on AIDS-related knowledge among Indian men and women using a twostage hurdle model. The second model looks at the effect of AIDS-related knowledge on the sexual behavior of Indians using the Probit analysis. Both these relationships hint towards the possible problems faced by AIDS campaigns and government programs in combating the HIV epidemic in India. The effect of media in promoting AIDS education, even though statistically significant, is minimal. Moreover, the effect of AIDS knowledge on sexual behavior is very disturbing. Women have insignificant control over their sexual behavior despite their improved knowledge levels. Moreover, men's behavior is barely influenced by their knowledge levels. Thus, increasing AIDS knowledge among Indians is only one of the several crucial steps in controlling the HIV/AIDS epidemic. However, the success of AIDS campaigns and other programs also depend on factors such as improved education levels, better job conditions, enhanced livelihood, and additional resources for the country's healthcare.
This paper examines the evolution of exchange rate pass-through (ERPT)into India’s consumer price index (CPI) at the aggregate level over the period 1980Q1-2006Q4. It also investigates whether the extent of exchange rate pass-through is impacted by common macro fundamentals such as inflation and exchange rate volatility. Finally, the paper also tests for possible asymmetries of ERPT during periods of depreciation versus appreciation.
In early India both the Brahmanic and Buddhist communities generated myths featuring Kāma, the god of love and desire. These myths served as an allegory for the shifting discourse on sexuality, which conveyed specific models of sexual behavior in order to preserve traditional Brahmanic cosmic and patriarchal social order. Additionally, a significant portion of this discourse on sexuality focused on the Buddhist and Brahmanic struggle to gain control over women’s roles within social, political, economic, and religious contexts. The Buddha-Kāma myth emphasized renunciation and detachment. This Buddhist message of renunciation was viewed as a threat to the Brahmanic social order. This narrative depicted the Bodhisattva meditating under a tree in the hope of attaining enlightenment; indeed Kāma attempts to distract the Bodhisattva, to no avail. The Brahmanic community responded by producing the Hindu myth of Śiva and Kāma, which depicted a battle between Śiva and Kāma, wherein Kāma attempted to rouse Śiva, who, in anger, responded by burning Kāma to the ash, only to resurrect him later. This Brahmanic narrative successfully subsumed the ascetic threat by re-establishing Kāma’s place in the cosmic order and emphasizing that controlled desire was fundamental for the preservation of the universe.
Vandana Shiva, a world-renowned physicist, activist, ecologist, political-economist, feminist and author, has extensive knowledge and experience with global economies, local food production, biotechnology and human rights. She established Navdanya, a movement for biodiversity conservation and farmers' rights in India. She also founded Diverse Women for Diversity, an international movement of women working for food, agriculture, patents and biotechnology. Part of Notable Lectures & Performances series, Colorado College. Recorded October 16, 2007.
Sītā, the heroine of the Rāmāyaṇa, is a remarkably prominent figure in Hinduism. She has made an impact on women of all different types in India. From young girls to older women; from women in rural regions to those in urban centers; from women of the lower class to those of the upper class, Sītā’s presence in India has no boundaries. Sītā as a model has been interpreted variously. On one side, Sītā is held as the ideal Hindu wife and woman. She is always loyal to her husband, Rāma, and sacrifices her own needs for his; she is the pativratā (ideal wife) in this way. However, despite her label as the ideal wife, numerous feminists have viewed Sītā as a destructive model for women to look up to. Sītā is devoted to Rāma always, even when he treats her cruelly. By using Sītā as a model, women can be subjected to mistreatment from their husbands, and lose their own sense of self-identities. However, whether one accepts or rejects Sītā, the fact that she holds such a large presence today shows that Sītā has something valuable to offer contemporary women. Shown through interviews with contemporary Hindu women and folk songs, it is clear that Sītā is highly revered for her self-sacrificing nature. She undergoes repeated suffering due to Rāma, yet maintains her dignity and continues living with devotion. For contemporary Hindu women, Sītā is a powerful example. Many of these women are also defined by their husbands, and undergo suffering and mistreatment due to them. For these women who identify with the suffering and hardship that Sītā undergoes, by channeling her example of living with fidelity, devotion, and self-sacrifice, they can find meaning and self-respect in their own difficult lives.
From its earliest stages, the rhetoric of India’s HIV/AIDS discourse has maintained an explicit focus on transmission through contact with high-risk groups (i.e. migrant workers, sex workers, homosexuals, and intravenous drug users). India's intense focus on high-risk groups, and primary focus on the commercial sex work industry in HIV/AIDS research and prevention strategies exhibits critical voids in the academic literature, scholarship, and discourse surrounding the subject. Over the course of this research study I spent several months interviewing sex workers in Pune, India to gain a better understanding of the circumstances and social factors that contribute to women's involvement and participation in sex work and the sex work industry. Using my interviews, experiences in the red light district, and academic research on India's HIV/AIDS discourse I have attempted to highlight the uncritical use of the term “high-risk” in the rhetoric of India's HIV/AIDS discourse and to bring attention to the underlying social factors that create, maintain, and perpetuate entry into the sex work industry in India. The central focus of this research study is to displace female sex workers as the “vectors”, in epidemiological terms, of HIV/AIDS (Kadiyala and Barnett 2004: 1888) and highlight India’s patriarchal social structures that result in gender inequality and economic vulnerability for women as the social forces that lead women to participate in the commercial sex work industry, and hence to participate in high-risk behaviors and a high-risk industry that is significant in the spread of HIV/AIDS in India.
India accounts for one in four of the under-five deaths in the world. Almost 300 million of its people live on less than 25 cents a day. This paper examines the determinants of child mortality in order to aid development strategies that aim to decrease mortality and increase human capital. I use a multivariate regression model examine the effect on child mortality of fertility, female literacy, health expenditure, education expenditures, GDP growth, per capita income, male literacy and vaccination rates across all 28 states in India. The majority of data used is from the third National Family Health Survey of India. The initial results were mixed and further testing shows influences of severe multicollinearity on the data. Due to the large range in child mortality rates across states, a dummy variable test examines the variation in two groups of states caused be either “high” or “low” child mortality.