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Browsing 1,363 results for facet Genres with value of thesis.
  • Thumbnail for Relict tallgrass prairie of the Upper Black Squirrel Creek drainage, El Paso County, Colorado : change since the 1940's
    Relict tallgrass prairie of the Upper Black Squirrel Creek drainage, El Paso County, Colorado : change since the 1940's by Tsocanos, Sebastian A. E.

    In the mid 1940s remnant tallgrass prairie near Colorado Springs was recognized in vegetation studies on the plains. Tallgrass prairie is unusual in the arid Great Plains, and is of significant conservation value, particularly given the past and present pressures of urban expansion, intense grazing, and water development. Our study examined the question of whether this community type still exists in the region, if the extent of the community type has changed since then, and whether the species composition has changed. We found that while true tallgrass prairie vegetation is no longer dominant at many of the sites used in the original studies, patches of true tallgrass prairie still occur in the area. The extent of tallgrass prairie in the vicinity has clearly declined over the past 70 years. The vegetation of remaining patches is composed of very similar species to those originally documented. We found that the dominant vegetation is still characteristic of true tallgrass prairie. Among the important grasses were prairie dropseed, indian grass, little bluestem), and big bluestem. Important widespread forbs indicative of true tallgrass prairie included american licorice (Glycyrrhiza lepidota), stiff goldenrod (Oligoneuron rigidum), white heath aster (Symphyotrichum ericoides), and purple prairie clover (Dalea purpurea) among many others. We determined that overall precipitation and temperature in the locality has not changed dramatically since the 1940’s. The alluvial aquifer across much of the area is evidently little changed, but hydrology on a site-by-site basis is poorly understood. While the continued existence of some true tallgrass prairie communities here is reassuring, their diminished extent is cause for concern, especially given increasing pressure from urban expansion, livestock grazing, invasive species, and water development. The uncertain status of future temperature and precipitation, as well as the maintenance of critical surface and subsurface hydrologic regimes is also of concern.

  • Thumbnail for Examining the response of soil nutrients to mastication treatments in Colorado's Front Range ponderosa pine forests
  • Thumbnail for DCC Test thesis
  • Thumbnail for Micrometeorlogical feedbacks at an alpine tree line : do trees improve their own climatic conditions leading to upslope advance of tree line
    Micrometeorlogical feedbacks at an alpine tree line : do trees improve their own climatic conditions leading to upslope advance of tree line by Zia, Matthew Brooks

    The tree line is a climatic boundary, however its ability to respond to changing climate seems to be constrained by the spatial distribution of trees at the leading edge; compared to abrupt or krummholz tree lines, diffuse tree lines are moving upslope much more readily in response to recent anthropogenic warming. Here we report on the micrometeorological processes that result from the diffuse leading edge of a moving tree line on Pikes Peak, Colorado, USA, and on the impacts these processes have on tree temperatures. We focus on the layering and movement of air in the lower 10m of the atmosphere including the height of the displacement of the zero velocity plane. Our experimental design consisted of 300m upslope transects through the tree line into the alpine tundra where we measured: (1) height of the zero plane displacement using handheld anemometers, (2) temperature of 10cm tall seedlings, 3-5m tall trees, and tundra grasses using an IR camera, (3) temperature and relative humidity at 2.5cm an 2m using Kestrel hand held weather stations, (4) the vertical atmospheric profiles using 10m towers equipped with 8 anemometers at 5 different elevations, (5) vertical movement of air using a bubble-blowing machine. Our results show that (1) the zero plane height decreased exponentially with increasing elevation (R2=0.432, N=57, p<0.0005) from approximately 25cm within the tree line to 2.5cm in the tundra above. The spatial variability of the zero plane height also decreased with elevation. (2) The temperature of small seedlings was (3) closely coupled to the ground vegetation (paired t-test t= 2.213, df=10, p=0.051),but seedlings were on average 3.88°C warmer than trees (paired t-test t= 5.808, df=10, p<0.0005), and trees were 6.1°C colder that the tundra (paired t-test t= 6.617, df=10, p<0.0005). (3) Compared to the air at 2m, the air layer at 2cm had higher temperature (+2.5°C, paired t-test t= 7.205, df=19, p<0.0005), and higher relative humidity higher (+29%, paired t-test t= 9.657, df=19, p<0.0005). (4) The vertical wind profile had a simple and smooth slow down to the zero plane at 2.5cm in the alpine tundra. However the profile was complex in all locations where trees were present: It showed an initial slow down to a very low speed at 3-4m, increase in velocity at 2m, and final slow down to the zero plane at 25cm. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of bubble movement (5) showed that the upper boundary layer was turbulent.

  • Thumbnail for Community Interactions between Two Monkeyflowers and their Pollinators in Mt. Rainier National Park: Mimulus guttatus and Mimulus tilingii
    Community Interactions between Two Monkeyflowers and their Pollinators in Mt. Rainier National Park: Mimulus guttatus and Mimulus tilingii by Sebastian, Laurel Taylor

    Community interactions form the foundation of ecosystems, but their complexity makes predicting species responses to new pressures a difficult challenge. For example, if climate change forces the upward range shift of one species in a system, closely interacting species will either suffer or excel under the new community compositions. This study explores the interactions between two closely related monkeyflowers (Mimulus tilingii var. caespitosus and Mimulus guttatus) and their shared pollinators in order to understand potential responses to future climate changes or species loss. We arranged plants in three community composition treatments (heterospecific, conspecific, and no neighbors) to understand how plant fitness and pollinator visitation are affected by neighboring plants. Specifically, does plant fitness decrease due to pollen limitation or heterospecific pollen deposition under any community treatment? Furthermore, how does environmental data illustrate the system’s response to climate variation at different temporal scales? In our experiment, M. tilingii produced fewer seeds under the conspecific community composition and pollinator exclusion treatments (both p<.001), likely due to intraspecific resource competition and pollen-limitation. Rather than impeding plant fitness, it appears heterospecific interactions may actually stabilize M. tilingii populations. Plants and pollinators also responded positively to higher temperatures and lower cloud cover, indicating sensitivity to climate. Thus, changes in plant or pollinator species abundances, or climate could severely impact the dynamics or viability of the system.

  • Thumbnail for A qualitative analysis of the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design : assessment of the Catamount Dorm Project
    A qualitative analysis of the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design : assessment of the Catamount Dorm Project by Armington, Caitlin

    The awareness of sustainability issues has increased the demand for contemporary environmental, social, and economic solutions. The green building movement, with LEED as the primary assessment standard in the United States, is a major focus of urban sustainability and the built environment. The Catamount Center Dorm, an ~3,000 sq. ft. small environmental education dorm at the rural Catamount Mountain Campus, located in Woodland Park, Colorado, underwent a preliminary LEED evaluation during the early construction stage. This qualitative case study identifies three theoretical constructs that address contestable concepts and gaps within the literature, and may be beneficial for directing future study; they include 1) LEED can serve as an effective educational tool for students, building designers, and LEED accredited professionals 2) LEED impacts building design team dynamics, influencing individual roles, advocacy, and group conversations, 3) LEED provides narrow sustainability solutions within the greater scope of green building practices and should be weighted against the larger ambitions of a project.

  • Thumbnail for A Micrometeorological Study of an Abrupt Treeline on Pike’s Peak
    A Micrometeorological Study of an Abrupt Treeline on Pike’s Peak by Parish, Meredith

    Pike’s Peak Treeline Microclimatology: Our study site in Pike’s Peak is one of the few abrupt treelines that is advancing with recent regional warming. We established that there is most likely an eddy in the lee of timberline during askew flow as evidenced by the increasing size (both length and height) of a slow air bubble from parallel to askew flow. This increased size of the slowed air bubble creates sheltered conditions downwind of the shelterbelt. Shelterbelts are known to ameliorate agricultural health because eddies can create beneficial climatic conditions through decreased wind speeds. However, the eddy created in our study site may not create a better environment for tree growth. Tree establishment above 2H must be inhibited by too high of wind speeds creating high shear and near non-existent snow cover during the winter. The area between timberline and 2H has been slowly filling in with seedlings since the mid/late 1800’s. The trees in this section do not grow into krummholz form. If a seedling can be established it grows into a fully-grown symmetrical tree. It is difficult, but not impossible for seedlings to become established in this zone. Tree establishment is most likely dependent on very specific microsites within this area that have some wind flow, moderate snow cover in the winter, and 40-80% open sky exposure.

  • Thumbnail for Carbon fluxes in the SiB3 model : evaluating the response of the terrestrial biosphere to significant drought
    Carbon fluxes in the SiB3 model : evaluating the response of the terrestrial biosphere to significant drought by Shiach, Ian Michael

    This study investigated the behavior of the terrestrial biosphere during times of significant drought, particularly in regard to carbon fluxes. The Simple Biosphere Model Version 3 (SiB3) was used to facilitate an investigation of ecosystem drought response. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) was evaluated from 1983 to 2006 in order to produce historical drought maps, which were used to facilitate a subjective analysis of drought behavior and to identify geographic point locations in the SiB3 model for further temporal study. Standardized maps were produced for modeled physiological variables (gross primary productivity, respiration, net ecosystem exchange, and soil water stress factor) over time in order to determine general regional drought response patterns. Physiological response variable data for particular spatial locations was then analyzed over time during drought years for anecdotal comparison with observational study data. While the SPI, which standardizes precipitation, was predicted to be an indicator of ecosystem drought response, this did not appear to be the case. The droughts modeled in the SiB3 model, which included the droughts in the United States Southwest and Australia in 2002 and in Europe in 2003, were found to respond heterogeneously in terms of carbon fluxes to similar droughts. The U.S. Southwest and Australia appeared to respond to drought in a manner consistent with anecdotal evidence with regard to perturbations in gross primary productivity (GPP), ecosystem respiration, and net ecosystem exchange (NEE), while Europe appeared to respond in a manner dissimilar to published descriptions of that drought. The behavior of the soil water stress factor in Australia and Europe seemed to be incorrect as well. Precipitation input data, derived from a reanalysis dataset from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), the treatment by the SiB3 model of the soil water stress factor, and the possible heterogeneous vegetative response to seasonality between regions were identified as potential causes of these disparities.

  • Thumbnail for The Cow in the Room: Regulating the Environmental Harms of Industrial Animal Agriculture
    The Cow in the Room: Regulating the Environmental Harms of Industrial Animal Agriculture by Palko, Gabriella

    Despite being the largest US methane emitter, the main source of water pollution, the driving force behind species extinction and habitat loss, and an intensive natural resource user, animal agriculture is scantily regulated and almost never considered as an option for combating climate change. This thesis seeks to provide a comprehensive analysis of the widespread environmental harms of the meat industry to demonstrate why it must be controlled. The historic 2015 Paris Agreement provides a framework for policy makers to address several ecological and climate threats, and regulating animal agriculture falls directly in line with the provisions put forth in the agreement. In order for the US to uphold their emissions reductions commitment and duties under the Paris agreement, industrial animal agriculture must be addressed. Current policies are examined as either hindrances or tools for controlling the detrimental impacts of the industry, followed by recommendations for policy vehicles and outlets to regulate the widespread degradation from industrial animal agriculture. If the earth is to avoid catastrophic climate change and ecological collapse, the cow in the room must be addressed.

  • Thumbnail for A historical relational analysis of vulnerability to the Waldo Canyon Fire
    A historical relational analysis of vulnerability to the Waldo Canyon Fire by Hayden, Mollie

    During the summer of 2012, images of hillside homes engulfed in flames played on repeat on news stations across the country. In the foothills of Pikes Peak, the Waldo Canyon Fire burned 18,247 acres, destroyed 347 homes, and killed two people between June 23 and July 10, 2012. Catastrophic fires such as the Waldo Canyon Fire are increasingly common throughout the west, especially in the wildland urban interface (WUI). These mega-fires are far from the natural disturbances that occur in many Western ecosystems. Instead, they are the product of a century of federal fire suppression compounded by changing climatic conditions. This scenario is complicated by increasing development in the WUI, where houses literally add fuel to the fire . This research assesses the specific conditions that contributed to the production of vulnerability to the Waldo Canyon Fire.

  • Thumbnail for Ozone trends from 2005 to 2016 at the Manitou Springs Station: attainment of the lowered ozone NAAQS in Colorado Springs
    Ozone trends from 2005 to 2016 at the Manitou Springs Station: attainment of the lowered ozone NAAQS in Colorado Springs by Li, Yingxuan

    Hourly averaged ozone (O3) measurements from 2005-2016 collected at the Manitou Springs station, Colorado, were analyzed to determine long-term trends and assess the ability for the Colorado Springs metropolitan area to be in attainment of the O3 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The EPA recently lowered the NAAQS for O3 from 75 ppbv to 70 ppbv, posing attainment challenges for high elevation regions of the western United States, including Colorado Springs, due to the impacts of baseline O3. Baseline O3 is defined as O3 that is transported to a location from upwind sources. This study aims to identify possible causes of different O3 trends in Colorado Springs. The annual 99th percentile O3 concentration showed a significant decrease of -0.71 ppbv yr-1 (-0.96% ppbv yr-1), and the annual 5th percentile significantly increased by 0.81 ppbv yr-1 (5.8% ppbv yr-1), while the annual 50th and 95th percentiles did not show significant trends. The decreasing trends generally appeared to occur at the 95th and 99th percentiles, attributing to the effectiveness of both local and nationwide O3 precursor emission controls. The increasing trend in the 5th percentile indicates possible increased baseline ozone. Seasonal variability of O3 concentrations was present with 50th percentile O3 values in spring (45 ppbv) and summer (46 ppbv) being significantly higher than fall (36 ppbv) and winter (35 ppbv), in part due to the seasonal patterns of photolysis conditions and temperature. Although multiple studies have observed increasing trends in springtime O3 in the western U.S., no such spring trends were observed this analysis. The lack of significant trends may be due to the particular location and topography of the monitoring site, which is east of the Continental Divide and in the foothills of the Pikes Peak region, as well as the influence from the nearby urban emissions. We also performed cluster analysis of 10-day HYSPLIT back-trajectories generated for spring (April-May) and summer (June-August) and looked at O3 trends within each cluster. For spring, most of the clusters did not indicate significant linear trends; the only significant positive trend was associated with low-altitude transport over the Pacific (Cluster 2). For summer, a significant positive trend was found in the 95th percentile of Cluster 6, representing the low-altitude transport from the southeast. The wintertime 5th and 50th percentiles indicated significant increases, with slopes of 1.13 ppbv yr-1 (17.2% ppbv yr-1) and 0.3 ppbv yr-1 (0.93% ppbv yr-1). Rapid development of oil and natural gas industry around the area may contribute to these positive trends, and this is an area for future research.

  • Thumbnail for The Roots of Impasse: How Neoliberalism has Shaped Recovery Planning for Endangered Fish in the Columbia River Basin
    The Roots of Impasse: How Neoliberalism has Shaped Recovery Planning for Endangered Fish in the Columbia River Basin by Linse, Lea Michelle

    Management of the Columbia River has come to an impasse: after decades of litigation and controversy, there is a growing sense among stakeholders that there may be no good solution to the conflict between endangered salmon and the region’s expansive hydroelectric generation system. Dams and reservoirs pose severe challenges to the survival and migration of salmon and have been blamed for significant population declines over the past century. Addressing this issue, however, is complicated by the fact that river management strategies to benefit the fish often require operational changes that reduce the productivity of hydroelectric power generators, and thus they are strongly opposed by hydroelectric interests and dam operators. Still, the National Marine Fisheries Service, the agency charged with ensuring that other federal agencies’ actions (including actions of federal dam operators) do not jeopardize listed species, is constantly pressured by Native American tribes, environmental groups, and other stakeholders to implement just that sort of management plan. Caught between the two sides, the NMFS, instead of being decisive, has tended to avoid upsetting the status quo and has been often criticized for it. This report seeks to explain why the NMFS has been so reluctant to regulate the hydroelectric system. It shows that, despite the authority of the NMFS the Endangered Species Act, they must operate within the confines of what is politically feasible. Political feasibility is constrained in part by the legacy of a trend toward neoliberalism that gained influence in U.S. politics during the 1980s and 1990s. Specifically, neoliberal policies aimed at limiting federal involvement in economic activities and private land under the ESA have become impediments to federal action in the Columbia that would give endangered fish priority over development activities that threaten their survival. Two such policies are analyzed in this report, the “no surprises” policy, which was originally designed for private landowners but is now used between regulating and regulated agencies, and the “best available science” mandate for federal action under the ESA.

  • Thumbnail for TREELINE MICROMETEOROLOGY AND HOW IT IS AFFECTED BY AIRFLOW ON PIKES PEAK
    TREELINE MICROMETEOROLOGY AND HOW IT IS AFFECTED BY AIRFLOW ON PIKES PEAK by Cofsky, Caleb James

    We aimed to find what kinds of microclimates were created by an abrupt treeline and relate those microclimates to the spatial structure of the treeline itself. We specifically wanted to understand how airflow is directly related to air temperature upslope of treeline. To do this, we took data from an abrupt treeline on Pike’s Peak in the Front Range of the Colorado Rocky Mountain Range. Our data was taken in September of 2016, which is representative of the tail-end of the growing season for trees. The wind speed and direction appeared to have a strong relationship with the air temperature, as the daytime uphill anabatic airflow created eddy zones of slow-moving air that were able to warm up from sensible heat dissipated at the ground surface., The nighttime downhill katabatic winds accumulated pockets of slow-moving cold air. This study helped us understand that sheltering with respect to treelines is not the result of single and independent trees, but rather the result of the entire treeline as complete three-dimensional structure. This is important because the effects of sheltering at treeline will vary from location to location based on the shape of the entire spatial structure of the ecotone.

  • Thumbnail for An Environmental History of the Colorado College Ornithological Collection
    An Environmental History of the Colorado College Ornithological Collection by McAuley, Sarah Marie

    An Environmental History of the CC Ornithological Collection

  • Thumbnail for Marianismo (la mujer buena) affects physical activity level in Mexican immigrant women
    Marianismo (la mujer buena) affects physical activity level in Mexican immigrant women by Luna, Araceli

    Current research on Mexican immigrant women’s health reports a myriad of preventable health problems that could be prevented with physical activity. Research also indicates that these women experience a multitude of barriers to participating in physical activity including cultural beliefs. It is significant to investigate the foundations of cultural beliefs because they are the ideologies that inform health behaviors like physical activity. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of cultural beliefs on physical activity behaviors of Mexican immigrant women. Using surveys and individual interviews, the researcher investigated the cultural beliefs surrounding marianismo or the roles and responsibilities of motherhood, wifehood, and womanhood for Mexican women. The significant finding was that marianismo beliefs negatively affected their physical activity level especially within their roles as mothers and wives. Spousal support for these women was crucial in overcoming the marianismo barrier to physical activity.

  • Thumbnail for PARODYING POLITICS: HOW TINA FEY AND AMY POEHLER INFLUENCED POLITICAL THOUGHT DURING THE 2008 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS
    PARODYING POLITICS: HOW TINA FEY AND AMY POEHLER INFLUENCED POLITICAL THOUGHT DURING THE 2008 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS by Gattuso, Theresa BEssie

    This presentation presents a case study of four SNL sketches parodying the 2008 Presidential election, with particular focus on Tina Fey's impression of Sarah Palin and Amy Poehler's impression of Hilary Clinton, paying special attention to Identity Theft, Same-Gender Drag and Conceptual Differences between political and comedic spaces.

  • Thumbnail for Being a woman is murder : the Scream series, why women are being killed, and why women are watching enthusiastically
    Being a woman is murder : the Scream series, why women are being killed, and why women are watching enthusiastically by Magninie, Mandolay Marie

    My thesis aims to look at gender roles in the Scream series and how they add or subtract from the misogyny that is usually associated with the horror genre. I mostly focus on women, but the roles of men are explored too.

  • Thumbnail for Finding one’s place in the complicated world of adventure : a cross-media analysis of the individual’s position in the Tintin comics Les 7 boules de cristal and Le temple du soleil and the videogame Shadow of the colossus
    Finding one’s place in the complicated world of adventure : a cross-media analysis of the individual’s position in the Tintin comics Les 7 boules de cristal and Le temple du soleil and the videogame Shadow of the colossus by Collette, Greg Edward

    Through a cross-media analysis of Les 7 Boules de Cristal and Le Temple du Soleil, a two-part story in the Belgian comic series Les Aventures de Tintin and the videogame Shadow of the Colossus, this thesis will argue that these works manipulate fundamental elements of their medium to intertwine introspection into the action-oriented tales. The works achieve this duality in positioning the individual in both a distant and close relationship to their diegesis. In expressing to the individual the fictional world, while simultaneously implicating him or her within it, these works place the individual in the role of spectator and participant. While the works constantly shift emphasis from one to the other, the individual is always both. The works do not champion one over the other; instead they reveal that both introspection and exploration are not antithetical but complementary. Without one, understanding of the other remains incomplete.

  • Thumbnail for Semi-bilingual children's literature : affirming or distorting Latina/o identities
  • Thumbnail for Water policy in Central Texas : the challenges associated with effective management in the Lone Star State
    Water policy in Central Texas : the challenges associated with effective management in the Lone Star State by Kelley, Katherine Rowe

    Water is more than a naturally occurring phenomenon; it is a commons resource that has become endowed with cultural meanings. While oil and energy are Texas’s banner industries, there is no resource with a greater significance for the state’s future than water. An understanding of the institutional framework and an awareness of how issues related to water policy is part of the puzzle of resource development and management. The challenges of water policy and management are best understood on a state-by-state basis. The current management system and statutes that govern water present many problems for future availability and use. The rule of capture is a dangerous force in Texas water management that is contributing to many of the resource allocation problems plaguing the state. The state struggles trying to reconcile political goals and scientific concerns with a complex management structure that is comprised of a blend of state agencies and localized districts. This has resulted in a policy battle between regulatory agencies, the courts, and individual landowners. Historically, the winners in this battle have been those who hold the most power.

  • Thumbnail for Rules of Engagement for The United States Armed Forces: The Noose For The Troops
    Rules of Engagement for The United States Armed Forces: The Noose For The Troops by Radecki, Jane Beverley Kendall

    The purpose of this essay is to review the United State Military’s Rules of Engagement (ROE). As enemy combatants have become more sophisticated, and increasingly difficult to identify, standing ROE are not sufficient for war fought in small operations, not on battlefields. In addition policies over the years have been enacted resulting in constricting ROE creating and increase in U.S. soldier casualties. This essay looks at how current legislation has been proposed, within the last year, to attempt to alter the current ROE that the United States Armed Forces operates under. After looking at reports from officers and the rise in the death toll in the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq it is clear that these current ROE must be changed so as not to be as stringent as they are presently. However, it is important to note that while these ROE need to be transformed they must not be abolished.

  • Thumbnail for Re-framing Modernity in an Iranian Context: Why Western Concepts are not Applicable in Eastern Settings
    Re-framing Modernity in an Iranian Context: Why Western Concepts are not Applicable in Eastern Settings by Prater, Bronwyn Elizabeth

    A study of the relationship between tradition and modernity and their relationship to gender in Iran in the late 20th century reveals unexpected coexistence. Tradition and modernity have typically been seen as two contradicting concepts, with tradition giving way to modernity over time. In this essay, we will examine if that typical pattern exhibited itself with particular focus on the progress of women’s rights and freedoms in Iran. The idea that these two concepts are not mutually exclusive will be explored, specifically in regards to the progress of women’s rights and freedoms within Iran. This paper attempts to provide the historical context that allows one to explore tradition and modernity to better understand the future of a modern Iran.

  • Thumbnail for Great Britain and King Cotton: The Lancashire Cotton Famine and the American Civil War
  • Thumbnail for DCC Test thesis
  • Thumbnail for Nation-building in Jordan : the Hashemite use of educational reform as a means to legitimate their rule
    Nation-building in Jordan : the Hashemite use of educational reform as a means to legitimate their rule by Liston, Matthew

    This paper examines the Hashemite ruling family’s nation-building efforts by focusing on the development of educational systems in Jordan. After briefly looking at the Ottoman Empire’s reforms during a period of modernization and development in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the paper focuses on the development of Jordan’s national identity under Hashemite rule. The paper discusses general state- and nation-building efforts under Abdullah I and Hussein. It continues by narrowing its focus and evaluating Abdullah II’s nation-building initiatives, especially those related to education, throughout the course of the last fourteen years. I use the theoretical frameworks of Dale Eickelman and Amaney Jamal as a lens through which to analyze Hashemite nation-building initiatives and better understand how the Hashemite rulers, especially Abdullah II, have manipulated Arab, Islamic, and Jordanian affiliations in order to establish their authority and promote the political legitimacy of the Hashemites as the ruling family of Jordan. Abdullah II’s nation-building initiatives are still being implemented, so as of now a definitive conclusion about the motivations and efficacy of his changes cannot be reached. I argue that, at this point in time, his reforms may not have effectively maintained his own political legitimacy as King, but they have succeeded in maintaining the political legitimacy of the Hashemite family as a whole in the eyes of the Jordanian people.