Managing the human wildlife interface in Northern Tanzania has become a challenge as human settlements are expanding into zones that have been designated to serve as wildlife corridors and habitats for the region’s wildlife, whose natural habitats are dwindling. This region’s dynamic history has lead to a current population of wildlife that is not representative of its historically lower levels. These high wildlife populations and expanding human populations have forced an increased demand on limited resources. This project studies the human-wildlife interface in Mto wa Mbu, the ward that is a part of the wildlife corridor bordering the northern tip of Lake Manyara National Park. Lake Manyara National Park is a part of the Tarangire-Manyara ecosystem in Northern Tanzania and is an example of a protected area that is vital to mammal populations. It is critical for wildlife to have access to substantial protected regions and migration corridors in order to maintain stable and healthy populations. Both the buffer zones of each protected area and the corridors of protected areas are crucial to the integrity of the biodiversity in the region. This region is also essential to human livelihoods due to its fertile soil as well as proximity to a major road for trade and travel. This project assesses the conflicting goals of the human stakeholders as well needs of wildlife and uses of the area through surveys and geographical analysis. Much of the data and conclusions that were reached in this study parallel the work by Lisa Naughton-Treves, Adrian Treves, and M. Wallgren: all major authors in the field of human wildlife conflict and human wildlife conflict mitigation. In this study, there is direct competition between wildlife of the park and livestock, which aligns with the results of Wallgren et al. (2008). Primates are the most willing of large mammals to go into zones of high impact, but the largest animals are reported by locals to do the most damage, paralleling the conclusions Naughton-Treves et al. (2007). Pastoralists and agriculturalists view the human wildlife interface in different ways due to their different lifestyles and practices, however both believe that short term and immediate solutions are the first step towards solving human wildlife conflict, also found by Treves et al. (2006). This project illustrates the complexity of the interface between wildlife and various human stakeholders and how essential it is to understand the various points of view for planning and conflict mitigation. The goal of this project is to understand this interface thoroughly enough to suggest potential solutions for mitigating the conflicts caused by limited critical resources.
Vertical growth is an important element to consider when evaluating the movement of an alpine treeline. The vertical growth of trees is decisive in the establishment of trees upslope of the existing treeline, as trees must be able to grow up, mature, and reproduce in order for the treeline to advance. The purpose of this study was to explore the possible causes of, and factors influencing, the vertical growth of trees in a treeline environment, specifically at the alpine treeline of Pike’s Peak, CO. Vertical growth was first studied on an individual scale, specifically investigating the thermal regime of trees and its impact on growth. The air temperature profile showed a nighttime inversion of daytime conditions. During the night there was a lapse rate of approximately 1°C, with the coldest conditions closest to the ground. Thus, the smallest trees were in significantly colder environments during the night than the largest trees. During the day, there was a lapse rate of approximately 3°C per meter, a very high lapse rate, with the warmest conditions occurring closest to the ground. Thus, the smallest trees were in the warmest conditions throughout the day. Additionally, it was found that small trees were coupled to ground conditions during the day as well as the night, and that the taller trees were coupled to atmospheric conditions. Yet, the coupling relationships were not exact, as the tree temperatures never exactly matched the ground or atmospheric temperatures. Finally, I investigated whether daytime or nighttime temperatures impacted growth more closely. It was found that daytime conditions were more important for the growth of trees at the study site on Pike’s Peak. The second part of the study investigated tree growth on a stand-wide scale, considering whether or not there were larger spatial patterns affecting the vertical growth of trees. I found that a shelterbelt-like system was in place at the treeline, the presence of which seemed to be affecting the growth of the trees within its bounds. Specifically, there was depression of growth directly upslope of the trees creating the upper bounds of the treeline, then an area of facilitated growth, ending with a return to normal conditions. Yet, these shelterbelt conditions were only detected for trees one meter or taller. The growth patterns for trees under 1 meter did not correlate to the growth patterns of taller trees. Additionally, the shelterbelt conditions would only be present during the day, which further confirms the importance of daytime conditions found in the first study. This exploratory study was a first look into the drivers of vertical growth of trees at an alpine treeline.
Urban agriculture has had a strong presence in American cities throughout history, whether from concerns of food security or desires for green spaces. In the past two decades, gardens have made a large comeback due to grassroots and community desire to build community and partake in the local food movement. Common literature has agreed on the benefits that gardens can provide for cities, but no study has found what it specifically takes to establish gardens successfully, in order for their benefits to consistently show for the long-term. This study determines what factors are necessary to establish community gardens with longevity in mind. Through extensive analysis of existing literature, this study finds that the three largest factors for establishing and maintaining community gardens are community interest, support for resources, and organized structure. This study then examines how these factors are specifically at play in Colorado Springs, as the city’s budding interest in gardening makes for an exemplary case study. For Colorado Springs, this study finds that while community interest and mechanisms for resource support are present when it comes to establishing gardens, in terms of longevity, a lack of consistent structure for supporting and maintaining community gardens could hinder the longevity of community gardens. It is proposed that more organization and structure for the gardens, especially in regards to leadership development, can promote the success of these gardens, as well as other gardens nation-wide, for the future by making gardens more self-sustaining.
This study examines the similarities and differences in environmental values and attitudes between Chinese and US college students, and predicts their correlation with one’s intention to take environmental actions. Quantitative findings suggest that the majority of participants in both groups share a similar level of environmental knowledge and converged environmental attitudes, except for their perception of nature. Qualitative findings, however, reveal that the perception of environmental problems and the structure of environmental attitudes differ greatly between these two groups of participants insofar as their similar levels of environmental concerns. Contextual factors between these two cultures are also explored to evaluate their enabling or constraining effects on environmental behaviors. This study represents a substantial step in building a better understanding of the interplay between cultural practices and environmental attitudes. It also has great implication for promoting the efficiency of the practice of environmental education at an international level.
Current science education standards mandate the inclusion of inquiry within curricula. However, existing research fails to address the correlation between the teaching of inquiry and the learning of inquiry skills. A unique opportunity presents itself at the Catamount Center where undergraduate students work with small groups of 5th grade students to facilitate a 4-week “Inquiry Unit.” This paper adapts and applies an existing theory by Ruiz-Primo (2010) to introduce a methodology that assesses the presence and quality of conclusion components in 5th grade inquiry papers. As a result of this research, several hypotheses have been generated regarding the successful implementation of the Inquiry Unit at the Catamount Center.
The combination of environmental and spiritual threats posed by mining on sacred geographies is exemplified in the struggle for Chi’chil Bildagoteel , or Oak Flat, a site in southeastern Arizona sacred to the San Carlos Apache Tribe that is currently threatened by an impending copper mine.
This study examines the similarities and differences in environmental values and attitudes between Chinese and US college students and predicts their correlation with one’s intention to take environmental actions. Quantitative findings suggest that the majority of participants in both groups share a similar level of environmental knowledge and converged environmental attitudes except for their perception of nature. Qualitative findings, however, reveal that the perception of environmental problems and structure environmental attitudes differ greatly between these two groups of participants insofar their similar levels of environmental concerns. Contextual factors between these two cultures are also explored to evaluate their enabling or constraining effects on environmental behaviors. This study represents a substantial step in building a better understanding of the interplay between social and cultural practices and environmental attitudes. It also has great implication for promoting the efficiency of the practice of environmental education at an international level.
An Environmental History of the CC Ornithological Collection
Invasive species are becoming increasingly problematic as human activities and climate change accelerate their spread to new areas. The invasive grass Bothriochloa ischaemum (King ranch bluestem) has taken over large portions of the savanna on the Edwards Plateau in central Texas. Given its pervasiveness, it greatly reduces the populations of native grasses and forbs, and land managers are looking for effective ways to control this species. Recurring fire is necessary to maintain savanna ecosystems; this study aims to determine the most effective timing of fire for controlling B. ischaemum and maintaining a diverse savanna ecosystem. An unreplicated randomized block design was used, in which plots were burned at different times of year during 2016, or left unburned as a control. Pre-fire moisture data, soil temperature data from the duration of the burn, and post-fire plant species data were taken from each plot. These data show that there is a non-significant correlation between August burns and higher fire intensity, and a slight negative correlation between fuel moisture content and higher fire intensity. There was a nonsignificant trend towards lower species richness in unburned plots. On average, a plot burned in August or October was less likely to have B. ishcaemum than a plot burned in February or April, or left unburned. Prescribed burns successfully increased the abundance of native perennials, especially when done in the late summer. These results are probably due to differences in plant phenology at the time of each fire. Native plants are adapted to summer fires, while B. ischaemum could be at a vulnerable phenological stage during the summer. These findings have important implications for the management and restoration of central Texas grasslands. We recommend that land managers use prescribed burns during late summer in order to control B. ischaemum and boost ecosystem health.
Ecotone transitions offer a rare opportunity to examine these spatial patterns along known stress gradients. This allows us to link specific patterns that exist at the different stages of bifurcation to potential mechanisms that create these complex spatial structures. This paper applied robust criticality theory the alpine forest-tundra ecotone transition to see how treelines can be understood through the framework of critical transitions, and concurrently, how robust criticality theory can be applied to an anisotropic system to predict potential threshold behavior in treeline movement upslope. Spatial structure of an abrupt treeline on Pikes Peak, CO was analyzed using Fragstats and ImageJ. The presence of robust criticality was tested using an AIC model fit test. Model analysis showed that this treeline clearly exhibits a type of robust criticality with the existence of a percolation cluster and deviations of log frequency-size distribution of patches along the elevation gradient from a strict power law. However, it did not conform to the theory perfectly. This likely points to the problem of accounting for multiple stressors that exert their influence over the dynamics of treeline to different extents in different zones. It is this complex matrix of local feedbacks created by endogenous interactions between the harsh environmental conditions and the trees that produces the dynamic spatial structure at this site along the elevation gradient. This has important implications for how the treeline will react in the future to increasing temperatures and decreasing snowpack as predicted by climate change models in the Rock Mountain West.
Alpine treelines are very unique ecotones which are visibly responding to climate change worldwide. As global climate change persists alpine treelines are expected to migrate into higher elevations. Not all alpine treelines however are uniform and the microclimates created at the surface have seen to be essential for seedling establishment. The particular microclimate along treeline will dictate how heat is distributed which will ultimately control tree survival. This study discusses how wind interacts with treelines when coming from different directions and where areas of sheltering are created. An area of interest was created along treeline on Pikes Peak in Colorado where wind speeds were measured along a transect moving from the forest up to the tundra above. As expected it was found that a large sheltered area of slow air was created when wind moves uphill over the forest. Downhill moving wind shrinks this sheltered area especially during periods of faster wind. Wind parallel to treeline was found to be more turbulent and sensitive to the local spatial structure. As climate change intensifies it is expected that these sheltered zones created by treeline structure will be altered and become more essential for seedling establishment.
During the nineteenth century, the English Parliament commissioned a series of educational reports of Wales which aimed to denigrate the nation to aid an English cultural takeover, thus ensuring cultural homogeneity within England and Wales. In the educational reports, women were used as the markers of Wales and were conflated with barbarism and bestiality. The Welsh male elites responded virulently, claiming the virtuous nation of Welshwomen, and subsequently, Wales. Women were thus used as political pawns, and were tokenized, as opposed to being represented in of themselves. Following these responses, a Welsh national identity began to form which was centered around women. Wales came to be personified as a woman, thus the idealized version of Welsh womanhood was confined to such a degree that women had a very strict ideal to live up to.
Current research on Mexican immigrant women’s health reports a myriad of preventable health problems that could be prevented with physical activity. Research also indicates that these women experience a multitude of barriers to participating in physical activity including cultural beliefs. It is significant to investigate the foundations of cultural beliefs because they are the ideologies that inform health behaviors like physical activity. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of cultural beliefs on physical activity behaviors of Mexican immigrant women. Using surveys and individual interviews, the researcher investigated the cultural beliefs surrounding marianismo or the roles and responsibilities of motherhood, wifehood, and womanhood for Mexican women. The significant finding was that marianismo beliefs negatively affected their physical activity level especially within their roles as mothers and wives. Spousal support for these women was crucial in overcoming the marianismo barrier to physical activity.
This project is a translation of selected chapters from Sirena Selena, vestida de pena, by Mayra Santos-Febres. The accompanying Translator's Note and Afterward describe translation strategy employed as a practice rooted in the importance of preserving difference and unspoken rhetorics.
In modern literary theory and philosophy, the concept of place, despite its permeating influence in many if not all aspects of existence, has been far too overlooked. In my thesis, I set out to redefine place in a way that encompasses this importance. I chose to ground my exploration in literature—specifically “Eveline” in James Joyce’s Dubliners, The Castle by Franz Kafka, and “Las ruinas circulares” in Jorge Luis Borges’ Ficciones—in order to then move outside of the texts to situate these works in their respective authorial realities and consider the influence of external, real place on intratextual place. To examine the extent of the relevance of each author’s own presence of place, I consider theories regarding the origin of art with the help of Aristotle’s Poetics, literary scholars who have focused on these authors, and theorists who have focused on the role of reality in fiction. Finally, with the help of Martin Heidegger’s Poetry, Language, Thought and my own analysis, I argue that there is not such a stark distinction between literature and reality, that art is neither merely imitation nor creation, author neither imitator nor creator, and in the end, I expand upon the important relationship between place, art, and being in order to formulate a new definition of place in a literary and aesthetic context.
Le Cœur de Pic, a collection of thirty-two French Surrealist children's poems accompanied by twenty illustrations by Claude Cahun, is an irreplaceable artifact of Surrealist object experimentation in the late 1930's. Together, its phonetic- and optical-objects form the unique and specific "cross-border" function of the surreal book-object, which creates a hybrid and open-ended narrative. My goal in translating this text is to make a new textual object that is functionally equivalent to the surreal book-object of the 1930's, so that contemporary readers may access the mischievious and melancholic narrative contained therein. I have employed intermedial translation to create The Heart of Pic because Le Cœur de Pic is a multimodal text, having as much to do with verbal as it does visual elements. Intermedial translation is a new conversation in the field of translation studies in contemporary comparative literature. My hope is that this project will spark contribute to that conversation as well as the revolution of translation as we now know it.
This thesis tells the history of the Roman Catholic Church on the islands of Hispaniola (the Dominican Republic) and Cuba as it establishes itself as an institution. The thesis traces the history of abortion as the measuring stick for the sociopolitical influence of Catholicism on the islands. Beginning with the earliest Christian reactions towards abortion, the thesis makes the connection between church-state relations from ancient Rome up to the dictators Rafael Trujillo and Fidel Castro.
Pinochet gained power in 1973 in a coup that followed a period of rapid democratization that had culminated in Salvador Allende’s socialist democracy. In response to society’s new focus on equality during this period, the Church developed a progressive social doctrine that sided with the oppressed masses who had gained power for the first time. When the military junta took power, the Church suddenly had to choose between its new democratic ideals and its historic Latin American strategy of siding with the group in power. Its indecision resulted in a painfully divided compromise between two clearly opposed sides of the Church hierarchy. The upper echelon of the hierarchy, by remaining generally cooperative with the military regime, ensured institutional survival. The lower echelon of the hierarchy, by opposing the regime, kept the Church relevant to the masses that would someday regain power. The disunity within the Chilean hierarchy allowed for new and necessary flexibility that ensured both the Church’s institutional and popular survival under authoritarian rule. However, it was the careful strategy of Archbishop Silva that maintained the necessary unity that allowed the Church to utilize its internal factionalization to survive both the aggression of the dictatorship and the needs of its congregation, and ultimately maintain a critical degree of unity.