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Browsing 1,184 results for facet Genres with value of thesis.
  • Thumbnail for An analysis of alternatives for water distribution between municipal and agricultural users of Colorado River water
    An analysis of alternatives for water distribution between municipal and agricultural users of Colorado River water by Hardin, Sally

    The Colorado River is often referred to as the “lifeblood” of the American Southwest, as it sustains rapidly growing cities, feeds millions of agricultural acres, and forms some of the world’s most incredible natural features. The Colorado River is also one of the most highly dammed, diverted, and otherwise regulated rivers in the world. In the last few decades, the demands on the flows of this river have begun to exceed its supply, which is threatened not merely by over-allocation but also by drought and climatic uncertainties. The river’s dwindling supplies are no longer enough to support the Southwest’s rapid population growth in municipal areas while simultaneously answering to the demands of the more senior water rights holders, the agriculturalists. This thesis is an exploration of the current contentions between agricultural and municipal users of Colorado River water, with a focus on the alternatives available to address these ongoing issues. Of many options, including increased infrastructure and various conservation measures, water banking has been identified as the strategy most socially, economically, and environmentally qualified to address these pervasive imbalances in water supply and demand of the Colorado River.

  • Thumbnail for HOW CAN FORMAL ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURES ENHANCE SUSTAINABILITY IN LIBERAL ARTS COLLEGES?:  A CASE STUDY OF COLORADO COLLEGE
    HOW CAN FORMAL ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURES ENHANCE SUSTAINABILITY IN LIBERAL ARTS COLLEGES?: A CASE STUDY OF COLORADO COLLEGE by Haslett, Fiona Sinclair

    The “institutional inertia” for Education for Sustainability (EfS) in liberal arts institutions is often attributed to faculty perceptions that EfS is not relevant within their area of expertise. However, sustainability is most effectively integrated into an institution when the formal administrative structures align to prioritize a whole system approach. After conducting 40 interviews with professors across all divisions, we developed an understanding of academics’ attitudes, values, and experiences to identify areas where EfS can be more effectively woven into informal campus activities and curricula. In addition, the formal administrative structures of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) can promote incongruences between faculty beliefs and campus practices. Findings from this qualitative study are divided into three hypotheses that a liberal arts education should: (1) transition away from teaching within disciplines and establish curricula structured around the process of learning, the development of skills, and the acquisition of knowledge through transdisciplinary topics, (2) create a context for student learning that engages the affective domain and fosters opportunities to develop individual values, attitudes and passions, (3) prioritize a process of learning that includes active participation and an inquiry-based approach to develop students as leaders and agents of change.  

  • Thumbnail for Causes and Consequences of Alpine Shrub Expansion on Pikes Peak, Colorado
    Causes and Consequences of Alpine Shrub Expansion on Pikes Peak, Colorado by Wheeler, Audrey Renee

    Alpine ecotones are often used as sites for measuring ecological responses to environmental changes. Recent decades of human-induced climate change have had a measured effect of increasing the altitude of alpine treelines in areas with increasing regional summer temperatures. On Pikes Peak (Southern Rocky Mountains, Colorado), there has been a measured treeline advance in the past several decades. The purpose of this study is to determine whether alpine willow shrubs on Pikes Peak are also advancing upslope in response to recent climate warming trends. After sampling ~300 shrubs in linear transects directed upslope, the shrubs were aged by counting and measuring annual growth rings. There is a significant negative correlation between shrub age and elevation for shrubs on the bottom of the valley (p=0.015). The mean shrub age decreases with increased elevation, and the ages in the lowest elevation band are significantly different from those in the highest elevation band for valley shrubs (p=0.041). The width of annual growth rings did not appear to have a correlation with annual or growing season temperature anomalies. A photographic analysis of aerial photographs from the past several decades was inconclusive. This study suggests that shrubs are increasingly recruiting at higher elevations on Pikes Peak, and have perhaps spread to their current elevation within the past 30 years. By surveying shrub movement in alpine environments, extrapolations can be made about how shrub distribution will change in the future and how shrubs may contribute to feedback cycles for regional climate phenomena.

  • Thumbnail for East, West, and Back: The Path of Gary Snyder
    East, West, and Back: The Path of Gary Snyder by Stein, Thomas Jacob

    This paper will address two closely linked lines of inquiry, the first of which is how the living practice of Zen Buddhism might work to deepen an ecological understanding of the world by fostering a deeper understanding of the self and the place of the self in the wider sphere of the inherent interconnectedness of the natural world. The second question is: How might the path of Gary Snyder be an example to which American environmentalists might look in order to bring greater meaning and understanding to the practice of what is conventionally termed “environmentalism.” These questions will bring about discussion of the potential problems with Western dualism that might be countered by the nondualist tradition of Zen Buddhism. With this context established, we will examine the trajectory of the work of Gary Snyder and how the practice of Zen Buddhism broadened his understanding of themes already present in his American naturalist roots. In this paper I focus on two important gleanings from Zen Buddhist practice and teaching, the first of which is the idea of a dependent self that is inherently part of the interconnected sphere of living and nonliving things here on this earth and extending outward into the entire universe. This Buddhist view of self allows for a wider scope that works against the restrictions placed on the self by the dominant Western notion of an independent and autonomous self. Snyder’s sense of interconnectivity can be seen to develop throughout the trajectory of his poetry and prose, coevolving with his understanding of self as it is informed by his Zen practice. The second takeaway I hope will be the grounding effects of Zen practice, allowing the practitioner to focus on the task at hand, effectively eliminating mind-body dualism that can be shown to extend to a problematic and hierarchical human-nature dualism. I will examine this idea of undivided attention to the task at hand as Gary Snyder has emphasized this aspect of his Buddhist and naturalist practice throughout the course of his life and works. An American naturalist, poet, activist, and Zen practitioner, Gary Snyder supplements Western ecological thought with indigenous and Eastern wisdom. He effectively draws from each tradition to add to his practice of living lightly on this earth. Snyder has cultivated a worldview in which interconnectivity is inherent and every action is done in mind of a larger whole, no doubt owing to his involvement with Zen practice. It is my goal in writing this paper to examine, by the example of the life and writing of Gary Snyder, how certain aspects of environmentalism, speaking both philosophically and practically, might be given greater meaning and depth through the nondualist practice of Zen Buddhism.

  • Thumbnail for An exploratory study of the vertical growth of trees at the alpine treeline of Pike's Peak, CO
    An exploratory study of the vertical growth of trees at the alpine treeline of Pike's Peak, CO by Marks, Rebecca L

    Vertical growth is an important element to consider when evaluating the movement of an alpine treeline. The vertical growth of trees is decisive in the establishment of trees upslope of the existing treeline, as trees must be able to grow up, mature, and reproduce in order for the treeline to advance. The purpose of this study was to explore the possible causes of, and factors influencing, the vertical growth of trees in a treeline environment, specifically at the alpine treeline of Pike’s Peak, CO. Vertical growth was first studied on an individual scale, specifically investigating the thermal regime of trees and its impact on growth. The air temperature profile showed a nighttime inversion of daytime conditions. During the night there was a lapse rate of approximately 1°C, with the coldest conditions closest to the ground. Thus, the smallest trees were in significantly colder environments during the night than the largest trees. During the day, there was a lapse rate of approximately 3°C per meter, a very high lapse rate, with the warmest conditions occurring closest to the ground. Thus, the smallest trees were in the warmest conditions throughout the day. Additionally, it was found that small trees were coupled to ground conditions during the day as well as the night, and that the taller trees were coupled to atmospheric conditions. Yet, the coupling relationships were not exact, as the tree temperatures never exactly matched the ground or atmospheric temperatures. Finally, I investigated whether daytime or nighttime temperatures impacted growth more closely. It was found that daytime conditions were more important for the growth of trees at the study site on Pike’s Peak. The second part of the study investigated tree growth on a stand-wide scale, considering whether or not there were larger spatial patterns affecting the vertical growth of trees. I found that a shelterbelt-like system was in place at the treeline, the presence of which seemed to be affecting the growth of the trees within its bounds. Specifically, there was depression of growth directly upslope of the trees creating the upper bounds of the treeline, then an area of facilitated growth, ending with a return to normal conditions. Yet, these shelterbelt conditions were only detected for trees one meter or taller. The growth patterns for trees under 1 meter did not correlate to the growth patterns of taller trees. Additionally, the shelterbelt conditions would only be present during the day, which further confirms the importance of daytime conditions found in the first study. This exploratory study was a first look into the drivers of vertical growth of trees at an alpine treeline.

  • Thumbnail for Electrified Reefs: Enhancing Growth in a Temperate Solitary Coral Species?
    Electrified Reefs: Enhancing Growth in a Temperate Solitary Coral Species? by Barnett, Rebekah Mae

    Coral reefs provide humans with important ecosystem services including food, pharmaceuticals, and water filtration (Moberg and Folke 1999). These ecosystem services, however, are at risk from ocean acidification, coral bleaching, and other destructive anthropogenic activities. Since these ecosystem services are costly to replace and their natural ability to restore themselves has been compromised, active restoration is necessary. A promising tool for active restoration is the Biorock® method. The Biorock® method consists of running an electrode through a large metal cathode and smaller anode. The electrical current causes the precipitation of calcium carbonate onto the cathode. The cathode works as an artificial reef framework by providing a natural substrate onto which corals can grow. Claims about the effectiveness of this technology in terms of increased coral growth, reproduction, health, and diversity are spectacular (Goreau and Hilbertz 2005), but independent research is divided on the question of its effectiveness. In an attempt to help clarify the technology’s effectiveness, we conducted laboratory experiments to test the claims of growth enhancement for the electrolytic technology by exposing the temperate solitary coral Balanophyllia elegans to powered and unpowered treatments. The study focused on coral growth, but careful observations were made on other aspects of the community including presence and thickness of algal cover. Our results are not consistent with claims made about the benefits of electrolysis on coral growth. Growth between treatments was significantly different but, while claims suggest a 3 to 5-fold increase in growth (Goreau 2014), corals exposed to an electrical current grew less than control corals. The results suggest that the electric current may actually depress growth. A species-specific tolerance to electrical currents may help explain our results as well as the variation seen in other studies. In addition to variation caused by species tolerance and current level, there also seem to be overall trends of the technology being effective for warm-water corals, but ineffective or even detrimental to cold-water corals. The variation in effectiveness between warm and cold-water species is surprising given the proposed physiological mechanisms behind the benefit and suggests that photosynthesis may play an important role in determining whether or not the technology is effective. Our results suggest an ability of the electrical current to depress the growth of algae, which can positively impact photosynthesis and the corals’ ability to calcify. Algae inhibition can therefore play an important role in determining whether or not the technology is effective, but is still part of a complex interplay between current density, ion availability, algae and photosynthesis. Further study is needed to clarify these interactions and their role in determining the effectiveness of the Biorock® method.

  • Thumbnail for Conserving biodiversity : a qualitative method for analyzing federal environmental policies in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem
    Conserving biodiversity : a qualitative method for analyzing federal environmental policies in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem by Williams, Samuel Parker

    Biological diversity includes the variance in genes, organisms, and relationships found in nature. Also called biodiversity, it provides countless economic, social, and personal benefits to people in the United States and all over the world. In the U.S., this is recognized by the federal government most explicitly in the Endangered Species Act’s protections for those flora and fauna whose survival is least likely and most endangered by human action. Unfortunately, there are many anthropogenic threats to biological diversity. In order to protect this incredible natural resource, responsible management must be implemented across all levels of government. Given the amount of funding, large spatial scales, and public interest at stake, the federal government is the best suited to this task. The federal government must play a key role in the protection of biological diversity. The purpose of this paper is to provide a qualitative analysis of the federal government’s management of biological diversity in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Examining management at these scales is uncommon, yet extremely valuable. By examining management on scales that coincide with the scale of natural processes, we can better see the broad implications and interactions of our management policies. We can also determine how to sharpen management in order to more accurately address these important scales. In order to achieve this, a basic overview of modern conservation science and terms to be utilized will be provided. Building upon this overview, four categories will be describe, which, according to the science, are vital to the preservation of biological diversity. These categories are cores, connectivity, restoration, and monitoring. There will be three standards used to assess the quality of policy. Scientific foundations, the human-nature nexus, and adaptability are these three measures. The Greater Yellowstone ecosystem will then be described. Finally, in each of the four categories, examples of policy or management action will be described and analyzed via the three measures of successful policy. This analysis shall provide examples of policies with varying degrees of success. By extrapolating management from these representative case studies, an aggregate picture of management across the ecosystem will be gained. It is hoped that such analysis will uncover areas where management may be improved and facilitate the spread of successful policies and management ideas. It is also intended as a suitable framework for examining and creating biodiversity management policies in other ecosystems, regions, and countries.

  • Thumbnail for Comparative wildland urban fire policy : the Australian prepare, act, and survive approach during the Waldo Canyon Fire in the United States
    Comparative wildland urban fire policy : the Australian prepare, act, and survive approach during the Waldo Canyon Fire in the United States by Landsman, Charles King

    Wildfires worldwide are increasing in intensity and frequency while more residents move into the wildland urban interface. Fires such as the Waldo Canyon Fire near Colorado Springs, Colorado emphasized this sad reality in June of 2012. Because of worsening conditions, many regions around the United States are exploring innovative policies to ensure residents are protected and the loss of structures is reduced. One such policy is the Prepare, Act, Survive approach developed by the Australians. Prepare, Act, Survive emphasizes mutual responsibility between residents and fire or land management authorities and encourages residents located in fire prone areas to prepare their property well before a blaze. Residents are then formally allowed to stay and defend their properties if they wish to do so or encouraged to leave well before the fire threatens them if they desire. This paper explores both the American Mandatory Evacuation policy and the Australian Prepare, Act, Survive approach. Finally, it predicts how many homes could have potentially been saved if residents had been allowed to stay and defend their property during the Waldo Canyon Fire.

  • Thumbnail for Spatial distribution of alpine avens (Geum rossii) and northern pocket gopher (Thomomys talpoides) disturbance on the Pikes Peak tundra
    Spatial distribution of alpine avens (Geum rossii) and northern pocket gopher (Thomomys talpoides) disturbance on the Pikes Peak tundra by Hebert, Lauren

    Pattern formation in ecosystems via self-organization is an important area of investigation in the field of ecology. Self-organization is the process whereby short-range facilitation and long-range inhibition lead to patterns in ecosystems at varying scales. Can biotic agents, such as key ecosystem engineers, be responsible for patterns of self-organization? We sought to investigate this question on the tundra of Pikes Peak outside Colorado Springs, CO. Aerial images of Pikes Peak reveal distinct patches of alpine avens (Geum rossii) dotting the tundra. Are there any patterns in the distribution and characteristics of these alpine avens patches? Closer examination reveals that evidence of northern pocket gopher (Thomomys talpoides) soil disturbance also speckles the tundra. Are there any links between gopher disturbance and alpine avens patches? We sought to answer these broad questions through a series of three investigations. We examined the large-scale spatial distribution of the avens patches relative to each other, surface gopher disturbance in relation to individual avens patches, and the underground characteristics of the tundra below the patches. Our findings indicate that while a link can be established between gopher disturbance and avens patches, it is not the complete picture. We found that contrary to the expectation that avens patches would follow a regular distribution at smaller distances, they were in fact randomly distributed at small distances and clumped at greater distances as shown by Ripley’s K tests. In line with our hypotheses, we found that gopher disturbance was clumped, and occurred more often within avens patches than would be expected given disturbance frequency across the tundra, p=0.001 (chi-squared=10.88, DF=1) for quadrant one, and p=0.0001 (chi-squared=306.96, DF=1) for quadrant two. Finally, we discovered an interesting pattern of what appears to be disintegrated bedrock beneath the avens patches, which may have implications for avens patch resilience on the tundra. In t-tests comparing mean resistivity of soil underground inside and outside the patch, p<0.05 for all depths except the lowest depth in one patch. In sum, it appears from our findings that while gopher disturbance may be necessary for avens patches on the Pikes Peak tundra, it is not sufficient. This is given the fact that gopher disturbance occurs in areas where avens patches do not, and avens patch boundaries are crisply defined while gopher disturbance is diffuse. Evidence does seem to point to self-organization on the tundra, with gopher disturbance creating short-range facilitation for alpine avens, and some mechanism of long-range inhibition preventing avens patches from occurring everywhere on the tundra.

  • Thumbnail for The Roots of Impasse: How Neoliberalism has Shaped Recovery Planning for Endangered Fish in the Columbia River Basin
    The Roots of Impasse: How Neoliberalism has Shaped Recovery Planning for Endangered Fish in the Columbia River Basin by Linse, Lea Michelle

    Management of the Columbia River has come to an impasse: after decades of litigation and controversy, there is a growing sense among stakeholders that there may be no good solution to the conflict between endangered salmon and the region’s expansive hydroelectric generation system. Dams and reservoirs pose severe challenges to the survival and migration of salmon and have been blamed for significant population declines over the past century. Addressing this issue, however, is complicated by the fact that river management strategies to benefit the fish often require operational changes that reduce the productivity of hydroelectric power generators, and thus they are strongly opposed by hydroelectric interests and dam operators. Still, the National Marine Fisheries Service, the agency charged with ensuring that other federal agencies’ actions (including actions of federal dam operators) do not jeopardize listed species, is constantly pressured by Native American tribes, environmental groups, and other stakeholders to implement just that sort of management plan. Caught between the two sides, the NMFS, instead of being decisive, has tended to avoid upsetting the status quo and has been often criticized for it. This report seeks to explain why the NMFS has been so reluctant to regulate the hydroelectric system. It shows that, despite the authority of the NMFS the Endangered Species Act, they must operate within the confines of what is politically feasible. Political feasibility is constrained in part by the legacy of a trend toward neoliberalism that gained influence in U.S. politics during the 1980s and 1990s. Specifically, neoliberal policies aimed at limiting federal involvement in economic activities and private land under the ESA have become impediments to federal action in the Columbia that would give endangered fish priority over development activities that threaten their survival. Two such policies are analyzed in this report, the “no surprises” policy, which was originally designed for private landowners but is now used between regulating and regulated agencies, and the “best available science” mandate for federal action under the ESA.

  • Thumbnail for TREELINE MICROMETEOROLOGY AND HOW IT IS AFFECTED BY AIRFLOW ON PIKES PEAK
    TREELINE MICROMETEOROLOGY AND HOW IT IS AFFECTED BY AIRFLOW ON PIKES PEAK by Cofsky, Caleb James

    We aimed to find what kinds of microclimates were created by an abrupt treeline and relate those microclimates to the spatial structure of the treeline itself. We specifically wanted to understand how airflow is directly related to air temperature upslope of treeline. To do this, we took data from an abrupt treeline on Pike’s Peak in the Front Range of the Colorado Rocky Mountain Range. Our data was taken in September of 2016, which is representative of the tail-end of the growing season for trees. The wind speed and direction appeared to have a strong relationship with the air temperature, as the daytime uphill anabatic airflow created eddy zones of slow-moving air that were able to warm up from sensible heat dissipated at the ground surface., The nighttime downhill katabatic winds accumulated pockets of slow-moving cold air. This study helped us understand that sheltering with respect to treelines is not the result of single and independent trees, but rather the result of the entire treeline as complete three-dimensional structure. This is important because the effects of sheltering at treeline will vary from location to location based on the shape of the entire spatial structure of the ecotone.

  • Thumbnail for An Environmental History of the Colorado College Ornithological Collection
    An Environmental History of the Colorado College Ornithological Collection by McAuley, Sarah Marie

    An Environmental History of the CC Ornithological Collection

  • Thumbnail for Projected distributional changes in Arctic-breeding passerines as a factor of land cover change in Northern Alaska
    Projected distributional changes in Arctic-breeding passerines as a factor of land cover change in Northern Alaska by Burk, Erin

    In North American bird species, breeding distributions are shifting north toward the poles with climate change (Hitch and Leberg 2007). Habitat type could act as a better predictor of shifts in the breeding distributions of territorial birds than elevation or temperature gradients alone, as both an individual’s breeding performance and adult survival depend on habitat suitability (Reif et al. 2010). Using models that predict how the vegetative structure will change in a tundra landscape, we can predict how territorial bird distributions might change alongside a warming climate as a factor of habitat type. This study makes population and bird species richness projections for tundra-breeding birds based on their habitat preference at the Primus Creek study site in the Noatak National Preserve, Alaska.

  • Thumbnail for How does culture or development construct the way people think about and act towards the environment?
    How does culture or development construct the way people think about and act towards the environment? by ,

    This study examines the similarities and differences in environmental values and attitudes between Chinese and US college students and predicts their correlation with one’s intention to take environmental actions. Quantitative findings suggest that the majority of participants in both groups share a similar level of environmental knowledge and converged environmental attitudes except for their perception of nature. Qualitative findings, however, reveal that the perception of environmental problems and structure environmental attitudes differ greatly between these two groups of participants insofar their similar levels of environmental concerns. Contextual factors between these two cultures are also explored to evaluate their enabling or constraining effects on environmental behaviors. This study represents a substantial step in building a better understanding of the interplay between social and cultural practices and environmental attitudes. It also has great implication for promoting the efficiency of the practice of environmental education at an international level.

  • Thumbnail for The History and Future Prospects of Colorado Conservation Easements
    The History and Future Prospects of Colorado Conservation Easements by Stewart, Allison A

    Understanding the history, purpose, requirements and benefits of conservation easements provides the necessary background for a grasp of what land trust organizations are currently doing, and can do, to ensure that perpetuity of conservation is upheld. An explanation of the dynamic reality and of the challenges of conservation easements that are posed by global climate change is emphasized. The intent is to comprehensively develop the concept of conservation easement, to illuminate the inherent benefits and challenges of permanent land conservation, and then identify a series of suggestions. Recognizing the ways in which conservation easements can be strengthened, mostly by changing the language, is a noble step toward improving the environment and hopefully will contribute to a stronger, healthier, and more sustainable environment for the future.

  • Thumbnail for DCC Test thesis
  • Thumbnail for TEST-The Chemical Structure of Biochemistry
  • Thumbnail for DCC Test thesis
  • Thumbnail for The werewolf is afraid : translations of La sueñera by Ana María Shúa
  • Thumbnail for The Testimonial Experience of Civil Wars: A Question of Trauma Expression and Historical Representation
    The Testimonial Experience of Civil Wars: A Question of Trauma Expression and Historical Representation by Yamada, K'lah Rose

    The following paper will use the civil wars of Spain and Northern Ireland as two case studies for the analysis of the individual expression of trauma. I will establish the historical contexts of the two wars, followed by an examination and comparison of the collective and individual silences and the memorialization of the civil wars. Afterwards, I will analyze the effects of trauma on the individual expression of the civil wars. Finally I will discuss the limitations of the archives. Through the comparative study of two civil wars and the different methods of memorialization and representation, an argument may be made that in order to discuss an individual’s traumatic experience he or she may use the polyphonic discourse thereby allowing the speaker to both represent his or her experiences as well as begin to process any past trauma.

  • Thumbnail for DCC Test thesis
  • Thumbnail for Saddam Hussein and the US: Origins of the First Gulf War
    Saddam Hussein and the US: Origins of the First Gulf War by Ayers, Jessica

    In 1990, Saddam Hussein invaded his tiny southern neighbor, Kuwait, and sparked the First Gulf War. The US responded with swift and decisive force—throwing Iraqi forces out of Kuwait in a matter of days. The episode is often remembered merely as a shining example of American military might, but the diplomatic history behind the First Gulf War reveals a much more nuanced story. This essay delves into first the American, then the Iraqi diplomatic perspective in the decade leading up to the First Gulf War, and explores the causes at the root of the conflict. These include failure of American diplomats to give Saddam Hussein agency, and Saddam’s unique political education, which led him to harbor a deep and unshakable mistrust the US. In the run up to the First Gulf War, both sides inadvertently exacerbated the tension between them, building on existing mistrust, and eventually resulting in outright war.

  • Thumbnail for In search of the Granary of Rome : environmental decline in Roman North Africa
    In search of the Granary of Rome : environmental decline in Roman North Africa by Heberlein, Will Robinson

    Visitors to North Africa have long noticed a sharp contrast between the lush landscape described in ancient texts which supported Roman cities like Leptis Magna, and the more arid, barren landscape of North Africa today. Environmental historians have traditionally attributed this contrast to a decline in the extent of forests and in agricultural fertility since the start of the Roman period, brought on by an overexploitation of Rome’s natural resources. Recently, however, this model has been criticized by several post-colonial and environmental theorists, who argue that the idea of decline in North Africa is a colonial invention that allowed Europeans to exert control over North Africa’s Arab and Berber populations. This essay seeks to evaluate the history and the historiography of the North African environment, and of the Mediterranean environment more generally, to uncover the extent to which decline may have occurred. It concludes that environmental decline did indeed occur in North Africa, but the source of this decline was the Roman Empire itself. The nomadic Arab people of North Africa cannot be blamed for the environmental changes which took place before their arrival. At the same time, human-influenced decline must not be ignored when considering the Roman Empire’s complex legacy.

  • Thumbnail for The Emergence of Male Obstetricians in Nineneeth-Century Boston
    The Emergence of Male Obstetricians in Nineneeth-Century Boston by Tatum, Sarah

    Nineteenth-Century America saw the rise of a new American medical model. The emergence of male obstetricians in the new medical model lead to surgical childbirths thereby marginalizing midwives from the medical community. This essay will explore the stories of male obstetricians and their lack of communication with already established lay midwives.

  • Thumbnail for Prohibition and Anti-Immigrant Sentiment: An Era of Excessive Inconsistency