Managing the human wildlife interface in Northern Tanzania has become a challenge as human settlements are expanding into zones that have been designated to serve as wildlife corridors and habitats for the region’s wildlife, whose natural habitats are dwindling. This region’s dynamic history has lead to a current population of wildlife that is not representative of its historically lower levels. These high wildlife populations and expanding human populations have forced an increased demand on limited resources. This project studies the human-wildlife interface in Mto wa Mbu, the ward that is a part of the wildlife corridor bordering the northern tip of Lake Manyara National Park. Lake Manyara National Park is a part of the Tarangire-Manyara ecosystem in Northern Tanzania and is an example of a protected area that is vital to mammal populations. It is critical for wildlife to have access to substantial protected regions and migration corridors in order to maintain stable and healthy populations. Both the buffer zones of each protected area and the corridors of protected areas are crucial to the integrity of the biodiversity in the region. This region is also essential to human livelihoods due to its fertile soil as well as proximity to a major road for trade and travel. This project assesses the conflicting goals of the human stakeholders as well needs of wildlife and uses of the area through surveys and geographical analysis. Much of the data and conclusions that were reached in this study parallel the work by Lisa Naughton-Treves, Adrian Treves, and M. Wallgren: all major authors in the field of human wildlife conflict and human wildlife conflict mitigation. In this study, there is direct competition between wildlife of the park and livestock, which aligns with the results of Wallgren et al. (2008). Primates are the most willing of large mammals to go into zones of high impact, but the largest animals are reported by locals to do the most damage, paralleling the conclusions Naughton-Treves et al. (2007). Pastoralists and agriculturalists view the human wildlife interface in different ways due to their different lifestyles and practices, however both believe that short term and immediate solutions are the first step towards solving human wildlife conflict, also found by Treves et al. (2006). This project illustrates the complexity of the interface between wildlife and various human stakeholders and how essential it is to understand the various points of view for planning and conflict mitigation. The goal of this project is to understand this interface thoroughly enough to suggest potential solutions for mitigating the conflicts caused by limited critical resources.
Mining activity in the central Andes poses a serious threat to human health due to the release of heavy metals in surface water. Long-term exposure to elevated levels of heavy metals, including lead, cadmium, copper, and arsenic, are known to have severe detrimental effects on human health. Mining exposes large quantities of metal bearing rock, which oxidize in the presence of oxygen and water, releasing heavy metal ions into surface water. Surface water contamination in Perú as a result of mining operations is of particular concern due to a lack of regulation of large-scale mines. In order to determine the impact of mining on surface water heavy metal concentrations, water samples were collected in nine streams throughout our three watersheds in the central Peruvian Andes. Results showed [Mn] and [As] exceeded the EPA maximum allowable limits at 55% and 14% of sites, respectively. The [Mn] was significantly higher in impacted streams than non-impacted streams. The [As] was elevated in some non-impacted streams and below the EPA maximum allowable drinking water levels in some mine-impacted streams. While Mn appeared to be impacted by mining effluent, As seemed to have a natural groundwater source. This study suggests Mn and As pose a serious threat to human health in the regions of study. The [Zn], [Cu], and [Pb] seldom exceeded the EPA maximum allowable drinking water limit (5%, 3% and 5% of sites, respectively). Dry season [Zn], [Cu], and [Pb] do not appear to pose a serious threat to human health in these regions. Further research is needed to understand seasonal variations in both dissolved and particulate trace metal concentrations. Implementing a community-based water quality monitoring program in study regions may also afford local residents more autonomy and local knowledge regarding the impact of mining on heavy metal concentrations in their surface water.
Vertical growth is an important element to consider when evaluating the movement of an alpine treeline. The vertical growth of trees is decisive in the establishment of trees upslope of the existing treeline, as trees must be able to grow up, mature, and reproduce in order for the treeline to advance. The purpose of this study was to explore the possible causes of, and factors influencing, the vertical growth of trees in a treeline environment, specifically at the alpine treeline of Pike’s Peak, CO. Vertical growth was first studied on an individual scale, specifically investigating the thermal regime of trees and its impact on growth. The air temperature profile showed a nighttime inversion of daytime conditions. During the night there was a lapse rate of approximately 1°C, with the coldest conditions closest to the ground. Thus, the smallest trees were in significantly colder environments during the night than the largest trees. During the day, there was a lapse rate of approximately 3°C per meter, a very high lapse rate, with the warmest conditions occurring closest to the ground. Thus, the smallest trees were in the warmest conditions throughout the day. Additionally, it was found that small trees were coupled to ground conditions during the day as well as the night, and that the taller trees were coupled to atmospheric conditions. Yet, the coupling relationships were not exact, as the tree temperatures never exactly matched the ground or atmospheric temperatures. Finally, I investigated whether daytime or nighttime temperatures impacted growth more closely. It was found that daytime conditions were more important for the growth of trees at the study site on Pike’s Peak. The second part of the study investigated tree growth on a stand-wide scale, considering whether or not there were larger spatial patterns affecting the vertical growth of trees. I found that a shelterbelt-like system was in place at the treeline, the presence of which seemed to be affecting the growth of the trees within its bounds. Specifically, there was depression of growth directly upslope of the trees creating the upper bounds of the treeline, then an area of facilitated growth, ending with a return to normal conditions. Yet, these shelterbelt conditions were only detected for trees one meter or taller. The growth patterns for trees under 1 meter did not correlate to the growth patterns of taller trees. Additionally, the shelterbelt conditions would only be present during the day, which further confirms the importance of daytime conditions found in the first study. This exploratory study was a first look into the drivers of vertical growth of trees at an alpine treeline.
This study investigated the behavior of the terrestrial biosphere during times of significant drought, particularly in regard to carbon fluxes. The Simple Biosphere Model Version 3 (SiB3) was used to facilitate an investigation of ecosystem drought response. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) was evaluated from 1983 to 2006 in order to produce historical drought maps, which were used to facilitate a subjective analysis of drought behavior and to identify geographic point locations in the SiB3 model for further temporal study. Standardized maps were produced for modeled physiological variables (gross primary productivity, respiration, net ecosystem exchange, and soil water stress factor) over time in order to determine general regional drought response patterns. Physiological response variable data for particular spatial locations was then analyzed over time during drought years for anecdotal comparison with observational study data. While the SPI, which standardizes precipitation, was predicted to be an indicator of ecosystem drought response, this did not appear to be the case. The droughts modeled in the SiB3 model, which included the droughts in the United States Southwest and Australia in 2002 and in Europe in 2003, were found to respond heterogeneously in terms of carbon fluxes to similar droughts. The U.S. Southwest and Australia appeared to respond to drought in a manner consistent with anecdotal evidence with regard to perturbations in gross primary productivity (GPP), ecosystem respiration, and net ecosystem exchange (NEE), while Europe appeared to respond in a manner dissimilar to published descriptions of that drought. The behavior of the soil water stress factor in Australia and Europe seemed to be incorrect as well. Precipitation input data, derived from a reanalysis dataset from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), the treatment by the SiB3 model of the soil water stress factor, and the possible heterogeneous vegetative response to seasonality between regions were identified as potential causes of these disparities.
Alpine treeline is a valuable indicator of climate change because of its sensitivity to temperature. On Pikes Peak (Southern Rocky Mountains, Colorado), tree density and elevation in the forest-tundra ecotone has increased in the last century, corresponding with a 2°C increase in regional growing-season temperature. The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed analysis of the process of treeline advancement. Spatial clustering within age classes and elevational bands was used to identify harsh environments and track the upper climatic boundary of tree establishment. Overall, clustering (Ripley’s K, p < 0.01, based on boot-strapping) was more prominent at lower elevations and for older cohorts, indicating the upward migration of the climatic boundary. However, the climatic boundary may be advancing more quickly than treeline as the moving edge changed from a clustered to a randomly dispersed distribution over time: from 1868-1940 the moving edge was clearly clustered, from 1941-1976 it showed mixed results, and from 1977-2010 it displayed a random spatial pattern. Treeline advancement also demonstrated a reach-and-fill pattern, with sudden advancement of treeline, followed by a few decades of infill at lower elevations. The reach-and-fill pattern repeated three times in the last 120 years, with exponential increases in tree density, especially in the last 40 years. The recent explosion of growth and the quickly advancing climatic boundary match temporally with a shift from an abrupt to a diffuse edge typology. To my knowledge, this is the first study that examines in detail the process of changing treeline typology of an advancing treeline.
The Colorado River is often referred to as the “lifeblood” of the American Southwest, as it sustains rapidly growing cities, feeds millions of agricultural acres, and forms some of the world’s most incredible natural features. The Colorado River is also one of the most highly dammed, diverted, and otherwise regulated rivers in the world. In the last few decades, the demands on the flows of this river have begun to exceed its supply, which is threatened not merely by over-allocation but also by drought and climatic uncertainties. The river’s dwindling supplies are no longer enough to support the Southwest’s rapid population growth in municipal areas while simultaneously answering to the demands of the more senior water rights holders, the agriculturalists. This thesis is an exploration of the current contentions between agricultural and municipal users of Colorado River water, with a focus on the alternatives available to address these ongoing issues. Of many options, including increased infrastructure and various conservation measures, water banking has been identified as the strategy most socially, economically, and environmentally qualified to address these pervasive imbalances in water supply and demand of the Colorado River.
This thesis advocates for the federal regulation of hydraulic fracturing based on two fundamental arguments. First, I argue that natural gas will be the primary energy source in the United States over the next few decades focusing on the national security implications associated with climate change and foreign oil dependencies. Second, I argue that federal regulation is the only way to ensure the continued development of domestic natural gas due to growing public concern pertaining to groundwater contamination. Finally, the paper presents four policy recommendations to be carried out on the federal level.
Understanding the history, purpose, requirements and benefits of conservation easements provides the necessary background for a grasp of what land trust organizations are currently doing, and can do, to ensure that perpetuity of conservation is upheld. An explanation of the dynamic reality and of the challenges of conservation easements that are posed by global climate change is emphasized. The intent is to comprehensively develop the concept of conservation easement, to illuminate the inherent benefits and challenges of permanent land conservation, and then identify a series of suggestions. Recognizing the ways in which conservation easements can be strengthened, mostly by changing the language, is a noble step toward improving the environment and hopefully will contribute to a stronger, healthier, and more sustainable environment for the future.
Pattern formation in ecosystems via self-organization is an important area of investigation in the field of ecology. Self-organization is the process whereby short-range facilitation and long-range inhibition lead to patterns in ecosystems at varying scales. Can biotic agents, such as key ecosystem engineers, be responsible for patterns of self-organization? We sought to investigate this question on the tundra of Pikes Peak outside Colorado Springs, CO. Aerial images of Pikes Peak reveal distinct patches of alpine avens (Geum rossii) dotting the tundra. Are there any patterns in the distribution and characteristics of these alpine avens patches? Closer examination reveals that evidence of northern pocket gopher (Thomomys talpoides) soil disturbance also speckles the tundra. Are there any links between gopher disturbance and alpine avens patches? We sought to answer these broad questions through a series of three investigations. We examined the large-scale spatial distribution of the avens patches relative to each other, surface gopher disturbance in relation to individual avens patches, and the underground characteristics of the tundra below the patches. Our findings indicate that while a link can be established between gopher disturbance and avens patches, it is not the complete picture. We found that contrary to the expectation that avens patches would follow a regular distribution at smaller distances, they were in fact randomly distributed at small distances and clumped at greater distances as shown by Ripley’s K tests. In line with our hypotheses, we found that gopher disturbance was clumped, and occurred more often within avens patches than would be expected given disturbance frequency across the tundra, p=0.001 (chi-squared=10.88, DF=1) for quadrant one, and p=0.0001 (chi-squared=306.96, DF=1) for quadrant two. Finally, we discovered an interesting pattern of what appears to be disintegrated bedrock beneath the avens patches, which may have implications for avens patch resilience on the tundra. In t-tests comparing mean resistivity of soil underground inside and outside the patch, p<0.05 for all depths except the lowest depth in one patch. In sum, it appears from our findings that while gopher disturbance may be necessary for avens patches on the Pikes Peak tundra, it is not sufficient. This is given the fact that gopher disturbance occurs in areas where avens patches do not, and avens patch boundaries are crisply defined while gopher disturbance is diffuse. Evidence does seem to point to self-organization on the tundra, with gopher disturbance creating short-range facilitation for alpine avens, and some mechanism of long-range inhibition preventing avens patches from occurring everywhere on the tundra.
Management of the Columbia River has come to an impasse: after decades of litigation and controversy, there is a growing sense among stakeholders that there may be no good solution to the conflict between endangered salmon and the region’s expansive hydroelectric generation system. Dams and reservoirs pose severe challenges to the survival and migration of salmon and have been blamed for significant population declines over the past century. Addressing this issue, however, is complicated by the fact that river management strategies to benefit the fish often require operational changes that reduce the productivity of hydroelectric power generators, and thus they are strongly opposed by hydroelectric interests and dam operators. Still, the National Marine Fisheries Service, the agency charged with ensuring that other federal agencies’ actions (including actions of federal dam operators) do not jeopardize listed species, is constantly pressured by Native American tribes, environmental groups, and other stakeholders to implement just that sort of management plan. Caught between the two sides, the NMFS, instead of being decisive, has tended to avoid upsetting the status quo and has been often criticized for it. This report seeks to explain why the NMFS has been so reluctant to regulate the hydroelectric system. It shows that, despite the authority of the NMFS the Endangered Species Act, they must operate within the confines of what is politically feasible. Political feasibility is constrained in part by the legacy of a trend toward neoliberalism that gained influence in U.S. politics during the 1980s and 1990s. Specifically, neoliberal policies aimed at limiting federal involvement in economic activities and private land under the ESA have become impediments to federal action in the Columbia that would give endangered fish priority over development activities that threaten their survival. Two such policies are analyzed in this report, the “no surprises” policy, which was originally designed for private landowners but is now used between regulating and regulated agencies, and the “best available science” mandate for federal action under the ESA.
The world’s fisheries provide humans with a significant source of protein and are the backbone of many coastal communities’ livelihoods. They are crucial for healthy marine ecosystems and biodiversity. Yet despite this they have been an ever worsening state for years. Marine resource management theories and techniques have attempted to address this crisis yet fish stocks continue to decline. One sector of the marine resource management, which is frequently underappreciated, are the small-scale fisheries which sustain millions of people worldwide and are negatively impacted by these decreasing trends. This study took place in two small-scale fishing communities along the Pacific Coast of Costa Rica. Both study sites are near marine conservation sites; however the one effort is a locally initiated Responsible Fishing Area and one is a government run Marine National Park. The studies focused on the perceptions of local fishermen and community members on the state of marine resources, conservation, and their role in resource management. Overall, correlations were found between increased community involvement in local marine management areas and more positive perceptions and investment, in the success of the area. These results add to past studies and new management theories which call for an increase in local participation and inclusion in management and marine conservation efforts in order to harness the support of these communities and address the needs of those people who depend on marine resources.
The advancement of global tree lines in response to climate change has raised questions among researchers about tree recruitment at elevations beyond tree line. This study aims to help understand this process by examining the progression of an abrupt tree line of engelmann spruce on the western slope of Pikes Peak, in Colorado Springs, Colorado. Methodology for this study includes drone photography, GIS mapping, dendrochronology, tree growth measurements, and soil moisture measurements. The results of our examination suggest that the three main mechanisms controlling advancement at our tree line include a leeward eddy when upslope winds interact with the tree line like a shelterbelt, a spiral eddy when winds are parallel to tree line, and cold air damming of katabatic winds against the tree line at night. Our examination of the vegetative response of trees at our tree line suggests that the most healthy recruitment is occurring on the southern edge of our transect and at the upper extent of the area expected to be protected by the tree line. We have found that trees and limbs that exist within the cold air dam at tree line have experienced decreased growth compared to trees outside of this layer of cold air.
SUPERANDO ESTIGMAS: REPRESENTACIONES DEL SIDA EN LA POESÍA DE CODESAL El SIDA es una enfermedad tanto medical como social gracias a su duración sin tratamiento y es marcado por estigmas perjudiciales. Al explorar los orígenes de la estigmatización y tratar de rechazar los estigmas, este estudio indica las esfuerzas de autores y artistas que ya existen para refutar el daño causado por las respuestas sociales, y también intercede en el discurso del SIDA en construir un nuevo lenguaje a través de una comparación multicultural que destaca las diferencias (o similitudes) entre España y los Estados Unidos. Entonces, es necesario hacer un análisis literario de Feliz humo de Javier Codesal, además de una critica artística del arte y de las películas de Pepe Miralles, Pepe Espaliú, Javier Codesal, y Hervé Guibert. También, será útil traducir fragmentos de Feliz humo para incorporar elementos interculturales. La relevancia del SIDA y su lenguaje tienen fundación en el hecho de que, aunque ha sido progreso científico, todavía exista respuestas sociales premodernas. ------------ OVERCOMING STIGMA: REPRESENTATIONS OF AIDS IN THE POETRY OF CODESAL AIDS is a medical as well as a social disease due to its duration without treatment and is marked by harmful stigmas. By exploring the origins of stigmatization and trying to reject stigmas, this study indicates the efforts of authors and artists that already exist to refute the harm caused by social responses, and also intercedes in the discourse of AIDS to build a new language to through a multicultural comparison that highlights the differences (or similarities) between Spain and the United States. It is necessary to incorporate a literary analysis of Javier Codesal's Feliz humo, as well as an artistic critique of the art and films of Pepe Miralles, Pepe Espaliú, Javier Codesal, and Hervé Guibert. Also, it will be useful to translate fragments of Feliz humo to incorporate intercultural elements. The relevance of AIDS and its language are based on the fact that, although there has been scientific progress, there are still pre-modern social responses.
Existing research on the college hookup culture has shown that women are prone to negative resulting physical, emotional, social, and relational results. The purpose of this study is to identify factors that lead women to hookup regret and factors that prompt women to hookup following regretful experiences. A survey of 181 college senior women from a small liberal arts college in the central United States, and in-depth interviews with ten of those women, indicate that hookup regret is most commonly a result of negative social interactions following the encounter, or negative treatment by the hookup partner. The data also indicates that women continue to participate in hooking up for the resulting sexual gratification. Third Wave Feminist theory encourages sexual autonomy as the path to sexual liberation-many women continue to test this avenue, but scarcely find the results they expected.
In 1990, Saddam Hussein invaded his tiny southern neighbor, Kuwait, and sparked the First Gulf War. The US responded with swift and decisive force—throwing Iraqi forces out of Kuwait in a matter of days. The episode is often remembered merely as a shining example of American military might, but the diplomatic history behind the First Gulf War reveals a much more nuanced story. This essay delves into first the American, then the Iraqi diplomatic perspective in the decade leading up to the First Gulf War, and explores the causes at the root of the conflict. These include failure of American diplomats to give Saddam Hussein agency, and Saddam’s unique political education, which led him to harbor a deep and unshakable mistrust the US. In the run up to the First Gulf War, both sides inadvertently exacerbated the tension between them, building on existing mistrust, and eventually resulting in outright war.
During the nineteenth century, the English Parliament commissioned a series of educational reports of Wales which aimed to denigrate the nation to aid an English cultural takeover, thus ensuring cultural homogeneity within England and Wales. In the educational reports, women were used as the markers of Wales and were conflated with barbarism and bestiality. The Welsh male elites responded virulently, claiming the virtuous nature of Welshwomen, and consequently, Wales. Women were thus used as political pawns, and were tokenized, as opposed to being represented in of themselves. Following these responses, a Welsh national identity began to form which was centered around women. Wales came to be personified as a woman, thus the idealized version of Welsh womanhood was confined to such a degree that women had a very strict ideal to live up to.
Religion was a pertinent, prevalent, and powerful force in the American Revolution. By examining the autobiography of Justin Hitchcock, the journal of Esther Edwards Burr from 1754 to 1757, and African-American/slave narratives by John Marrant, Briton Hammon, and James Albert Ukawsaw Gronniosaw, this thesis hopes to offer insight into how, for most people, the post-Great Awakening Puritan ethic (or in some cases, revivalist Calvinism) was an incredibly dynamic force that promoted both political change and traditional values. Much has been written on the evolving political ideologies of famous, white, male colonists during this period; this thesis explores the perspectives of those who were not as directly politically involved. A discussion on the presence and effect of religion in the colonies in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, as well as a description of post-Awakening evangelicalism and pre-Awakening liberalism, both supplement an analysis of the primary sources. The ultimate conclusion is that, in a way, Calvinism and the Puritan ethic were powerful revolutionary forces precisely because of their ambivalent natures.
Pinochet gained power in 1973 in a coup that followed a period of rapid democratization that had culminated in Salvador Allende’s socialist democracy. In response to society’s new focus on equality during this period, the Church developed a progressive social doctrine that sided with the oppressed masses who had gained power for the first time. When the military junta took power, the Church suddenly had to choose between its new democratic ideals and its historic Latin American strategy of siding with the group in power. Its indecision resulted in a painfully divided compromise between two clearly opposed sides of the Church hierarchy. The upper echelon of the hierarchy, by remaining generally cooperative with the military regime, ensured institutional survival. The lower echelon of the hierarchy, by opposing the regime, kept the Church relevant to the masses that would someday regain power. The disunity within the Chilean hierarchy allowed for new and necessary flexibility that ensured both the Church’s institutional and popular survival under authoritarian rule. However, it was the careful strategy of Archbishop Silva that maintained the necessary unity that allowed the Church to utilize its internal factionalization to survive both the aggression of the dictatorship and the needs of its congregation, and ultimately maintain a critical degree of unity.
This paper examines the Hashemite ruling family’s nation-building efforts by focusing on the development of educational systems in Jordan. After briefly looking at the Ottoman Empire’s reforms during a period of modernization and development in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the paper focuses on the development of Jordan’s national identity under Hashemite rule. The paper discusses general state- and nation-building efforts under Abdullah I and Hussein. It continues by narrowing its focus and evaluating Abdullah II’s nation-building initiatives, especially those related to education, throughout the course of the last fourteen years. I use the theoretical frameworks of Dale Eickelman and Amaney Jamal as a lens through which to analyze Hashemite nation-building initiatives and better understand how the Hashemite rulers, especially Abdullah II, have manipulated Arab, Islamic, and Jordanian affiliations in order to establish their authority and promote the political legitimacy of the Hashemites as the ruling family of Jordan. Abdullah II’s nation-building initiatives are still being implemented, so as of now a definitive conclusion about the motivations and efficacy of his changes cannot be reached. I argue that, at this point in time, his reforms may not have effectively maintained his own political legitimacy as King, but they have succeeded in maintaining the political legitimacy of the Hashemite family as a whole in the eyes of the Jordanian people.
Lacking a script, the Taiwanese aborigines did not write their own histories. Extant histories of the Taiwanese aborigines are fragmentary and written in the languages of their oppressors. How, then, do we study the histories of the silenced? Who other than the aborigines themselves is authorized to speak on behalf of these people, and more importantly, in what ways? I argue that it is possible, but difficult, to write unsullied histories of the Taiwanese aborigines that do not serve presentist goals. In my senior essay, I examine Dutch, Chinese, and Japanese colonial sources, as well as contemporary Taiwanese and American sources. Using the theories and methodologies of Edward Said and Eric R. Wolf, I identify the biases of these sources and show how they often tell more about their authors than about their subjects. I conclude that while large gaps still remain and some may never be filled, a measured, cautious approach that includes critical analysis of interdisciplinary sources might yield the most promising histories of the Taiwanese aborigines.
The history of the United States relationship with Iran during the 1960s and 1970s is really the history of the affiliation between the United States and the Shah of Iran. The Shah was able to play off of Cold War fears and a policies based in modernization theory to maintain a stable relationship with the United States' changing administrations. While the Shah is often portrayed as a weak leader in history, the Shah's ability to play use both Cold War fears and modernization theory to further his own agenda shows that he was an adept politician.