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  • Thumbnail for It’s a small(er) world : the role of geography in biotechnology innovation
    It’s a small(er) world : the role of geography in biotechnology innovation by Johnson, Daniel K. N.

    Using patent citation data for the U.S., we test whether knowledge spillovers in biotechnology are sensitive to distance, and whether that sensitivity has changed over time. Controlling for self-citation by inventor, assignee and examiner, cohort-based regression analysis shows that physical distance is becoming less important for spillovers with time.

  • Thumbnail for Six degrees of GM Bacon : network analysis of biotechnology inventors
    Six degrees of GM Bacon : network analysis of biotechnology inventors by Johnson, Daniel K. N.

    Network analysis shows a stable network between states, but a changing environment between individual actors, with a growing importance of connectedness. The popular maxim that everyone is connected by six degrees of separation is tested with surprising results.

  • Thumbnail for Viral economics : an epidemiological model of knowledge diffusion in economics
    Viral economics : an epidemiological model of knowledge diffusion in economics by Johnson, Daniel K. N. , Gurley, Nicole

    We model the diffusion of economic knowledge using an epidemiological model of susceptible, exposed, infected, and recovered populations (SEIR). Treating bibliographic citations as evidence of contagion, we estimate the coefficients of a four-equation system simultaneously for each of 759 subfields of economics. Results show that some subfields grow endogenously much faster than others, and just over half have basic reproduction properties sufficient to ensure survival without the annual addition of new protégé scholars.

  • Thumbnail for The anatomy of a likely donor : econometric evidence on philanthropy to higher education
    The anatomy of a likely donor : econometric evidence on philanthropy to higher education by Lara, Christen , Johnson, Daniel K. N.

    In 2006, philanthropic giving to higher education institutions totaled $28 billion, with the top school receiving just under a billion dollars. Roughly fifteen percent of those funds came from alumni donations. This paper builds upon existing economic models to create an econometric model predicting the ever-more important pattern of alumni giving. We test the model using data from over 22,000 alumni at a private liberal arts college, and report on the probable profiles for annual fund donors and alumni willing and able to give major gifts.

  • Thumbnail for The importance of being Steve : an econometric analysis of the contribution of Steve Job's patents to Apple's market valuation
    The importance of being Steve : an econometric analysis of the contribution of Steve Job's patents to Apple's market valuation by Scowcroft, Sylvie , Johnson, Daniel K. N.

    This paper evaluates the contribution of patent-related events to changes in stock prices, proposing that economics has traditionally failed to find much effect for two reasons which we identify and correct. First, patents vary widely in quality so we use quantile analysis and alternative measures of patent quality to identify effects. Second, we permit the possibility that information leaks out into investor sentiment during the long and uncertain time until patent grant, so evaluate the stock price effect at four different dates in the life of each patent. As a case study to test this approach, track all patents over a 27-year period for Apple Inc., permitting design patents to have different effects that traditional utility-model patents, and isolate the effect that Steve Jobs’s name on a patent has at each stage of a patent’s life.

  • Thumbnail for Thought for food : a new dataset on innovation for agricultural use
    Thought for food : a new dataset on innovation for agricultural use by Hughes, Christopher Ryan , Johnson, Daniel K. N.

    Agriculture, like many primary and service sectors, is a frequent recipient of innovation intended for its use, even if those innovations originate in industrial sectors. The challenge has been identifying them from patent data, which are recorded for administrative purposes using the International Patent Classification (IPC) system. We reprogram a well-tested tool, the OECD Technology Concordance (OTC), to identify 16 million patents granted between 1975 and 2006 worldwide which have potential application in agriculture. This paper presents the methodology of that dataset’s construction, introduces the data via summaries by nation and industrial sector over time, and suggests some potential avenues for future exploration of empirical issues using these data.

  • Thumbnail for Is Wal-Mart a bad neighbor? Repeat sales evidence on how property values react to a new big-box store
    Is Wal-Mart a bad neighbor? Repeat sales evidence on how property values react to a new big-box store by Lybecker, Kristina M. , Johnson, Daniel K. N.

    While there is anecdotal evidence that home values decline when a big-box store (such as Wal-Mart) decides to locate in the area, there is a paucity of evidence on that effect. This paper uses a repeat sales model to compare residential property values, and the speed of sale of the property, to compare the impact that an arrival has. Results conclude that there is a "news effect" surrounding the arrival, and that the total effect is small at most. For most specifications tested, the number of stores nearby, the arrival of new stores, and the distance to the nearest store all have insignificant impacts on both property resale value and the number of days that a property spends on the market prior to sale. In the worst-case scenario, the arrival of a Wal-Mart is associated with a decline equivalent to roughly one percent of the home's square footage and is not absorbed by those closest to the new retailer but by rather more distant neighbors.

  • Thumbnail for Financing environmental improvements : a literature review of the constraints on financing environmental innovation
    Financing environmental improvements : a literature review of the constraints on financing environmental innovation by Lybecker, Kristina M. , Johnson, Daniel K. N.

    In an effort to explore the potential for financing environmental innovation, this paper examines different forms of financing and attempts to evaluate their effectiveness. The study considers both public and private forms of funding as well as providing policy suggestions for the support of appropriate financing for eco-innovation.

  • Thumbnail for Who REALLY wants to be a millionaire : game show contestant behavior under risk
    Who REALLY wants to be a millionaire : game show contestant behavior under risk by Gleason, Tracy R. , Johnson, Daniel K. N.

    On the popular game show “Who Wants To Be A Millionaire”, men appear to average higher winnings than women. This paper investigates potential reasons, including different uses of information sources (lifelines) and different perceptions of risk. We include gender-based tests of Kahneman and Tversky’s prospect theory, but offer instead the counterintuitive conclusion that men are rewarded for acting slightly more cautiously than women do.

  • Thumbnail for Are many heads better than two? Recent changes in international technological collaboration
    Are many heads better than two? Recent changes in international technological collaboration by Sneed, Katherine A. , Johnson, Daniel K. N.

    There are two counter-intuitive trends in technological collaboration currently at work, making collaborative patent applications less common but where they exist, the collaborations involve more partners. Patent data are used to examine these trends along with the impact of two recent policy changes, including the relevance for particular nations and technologies.