A total of 56 stadiums and arenas opened between 1995 and 2009 including: 17 new baseball stadiums, four basketball arenas, nine hockey arenas, seven dual use NBA/NHL venues and 19 football fields. And it’s far from over: the San Francisco 49ers, San Diego Chargers, New York Giants, New York Jets, Minnesota Vikings, Oakland Athletics, Florida Marlins, Tampa Bay Rays, Minnesota Twins, Sacramento Kings, Orlando Magic, New Jersey Nets, New York Islanders and Pittsburgh Penguins anticipate new arenas by 2015. This paper summarizes recent and emerging trends associated with the capacity, cost, public subsidy and accompanying legislative characteristics of stadium and arena construction.
Television ratings provide a measure of the number of viewers for every NFL football game, however these ratings do not reveal the viewers' motivation for watching the game. Using Nielsen ratings for locally televised NFL football games, this study investigates the determinants of NFL viewership. Data are compiled for 496 NFL games during the 2000 and 2001 seasons. The results suggest evidence of race, team success, and the closeness of the contest as significant determinants of NFL viewership.
In the past few years, the National Hockey League (NHL) has struggled financially. Teams within the NHL and the league itself have been struggling to make money, and last year the NHL season did not take place because of a labor dispute and resulting lockout between the players and owners. Therefore, this makes the NHL a very appropriate target for study. As previous research on various professional sports and the NHL have shown that winning teams are going to draw more fans, determining what makes NHL teams win games is a worthy endeavor. This study does just this. By using Ordinary Least Squares regression and a data set compiled on numerous individual and team statistics for the 1999-2000 through the 2003-2004 seasons, this study determines the various factors that contribute to Team Point production and Goals Allowed in the NHL. Of special note is the finding that Major Penalties, most commonly assessed for fighting, do in fact help NHL teams win games. Hopefully by seeing what aspects of the game lead to NHL team success, the league can determine how to draw more fans in order to make more revenue.
This paper examines the demand for attendance at National Football League (NFL) games using a rational addiction model to test the hypothesis that professional football displays the properties of a habit-forming good. Rational addiction theory suggests that past and future consumption play a part in determining the current period’s consumption for habit-forming goods. A pooled data set is collected using statistics from each NFL team from the 1983 to the 2002 seasons. Current attendance is modeled as a function of team specific variables including past and future attendance, ticket price, and team performance as well as league variables such as the incidence of strikes. The model is estimated using Two-Stage Least Squares (2SLS). It is found that past and future attendance, winning percentage, the age of the stadium in which a team plays, and the occurrence of strikes are significant factors in the determination of attendance at NFL games. The fact that coefficients for past and future attendance are positive and significant in this analysis lends support to the notion that NFL fans display characteristics of rational addiction in their consumption behavior.
This paper considers the challenges associated with conducting research with undergraduates – limited time and resources, limited skills, the tedious nature of data gathering, etc.. We discuss four models of effective research approaches. One is Aju Fenn’s which is to identify a topic and a workable approach, such as competitive balance in sports, and apply it in different contexts – football, basketball, soccer, etc. with different students working on different sports. This model is also successful because much data on both inputs and performance is collected in sports and is readily available from non-propriety sources. The Dan Johnson Model is to develop a huge data set, in this case patents, and then set students to work on problems involving some aspect of the data set while asking them develop one part of the data set through their research. The Smith Model which is to divide a related problem into distinct parts and have students work on each part. Smith discusses this approach on research on recreation values for the Arkansas River a quantitative problem while Stimpert shows its application to a qualitative problem, the role of corporate boards.