The use of elements of music from other cultures has a long and colorful history in the Western tradition. A central question in understanding this kind of music involves how and why Western composers choose to evoke “the Other” through composition. This paper surveys the many ways composers evoke the other through the standard repertoire. An exploration of composers’ intentions and stylistic resources reveals the cultural importance of exotic music in different time periods and demonstrates how the function of music varies due to political and social pressures. This paper traces connections between formal devices in music and the composer’s intent when writing, which in turn suggests how the musical evocation of the other serves varying cultural needs based on the thought paradigms of artists in particular historical eras.
Water pollution in Bali due to human waste and agricultural runoff is a serious concern. Social and cultural influences such as rigid social structures, tourism, and weak infrastructure contribute to water pollution on the island. In an attempt to quantify the extent of the pollution, nutrient concentrations and other relevant variables were measured at seven points along the Yeh Ho River seven times in June, 2013. Interviews were also conducted to provide social and cultural context. The results of the study indicate that nutrient concentrations increase significantly as the water travels downstream from 15 (± 1.9) to 40 (± 3.2) ppm nitrate-NO3 and from 0.16 (± 0.06) to 0.61 (± 0.06) ppm phosphorous-PO4. In addition, nutrient concentrations on June 18th were higher across all sampling sites than the measurements on other days by 9.0 (± 2.4) ppm nitrate-NO3 and by 0.53 (± 0.06) ppm phosphorous-PO4. Generally, the levels of N and P in the Yeh Ho River are significantly higher than the expected natural background levels of nutrients in rivers. These trends are likely attributable to significant, uncontrolled, anthropogenic inputs into the Yeh Ho River. The qualitative data corroborates this interpretation. Other explanations for this nutrient increase include changing uptake rate due to geomorphological changes of the river, or systemic error introduced by sampling downstream sites later. However, these factors are likely negligible relative to anthropogenic inputs.