During the tabulation of votes in the 2000 presidential election, the world was shocked at the technological inadequacy of electoral equipment in many parts of the US. In reaction to public dismay over "hanging chads", Congress quickly enacted the Help America Vote Act (HAVA), legislation to fund the acquisition of advanced vote-counting technology. However, the intention was to enable, rather than mandate, choices of new electoral equipment. This paper takes advantage of a unique historical opportunity to test whether electoral equipment follows the pattern predicted by well-established models of innovation diffusion, merging electoral data with census data on socioeconomic characteristics. We infer that fiscal constraints to acquisition are strong but are not the only limitations to technology adoption, particularly within certain types of easily identifiable populations.
This paper considers the challenges associated with conducting research with undergraduates – limited time and resources, limited skills, the tedious nature of data gathering, etc.. We discuss four models of effective research approaches. One is Aju Fenn’s which is to identify a topic and a workable approach, such as competitive balance in sports, and apply it in different contexts – football, basketball, soccer, etc. with different students working on different sports. This model is also successful because much data on both inputs and performance is collected in sports and is readily available from non-propriety sources. The Dan Johnson Model is to develop a huge data set, in this case patents, and then set students to work on problems involving some aspect of the data set while asking them develop one part of the data set through their research. The Smith Model which is to divide a related problem into distinct parts and have students work on each part. Smith discusses this approach on research on recreation values for the Arkansas River a quantitative problem while Stimpert shows its application to a qualitative problem, the role of corporate boards.
Voluntary government programs such as ENERGY STAR have been created to promote energy efficiency within different organizations and businesses, and this study is dedicated to discovering whether or not businesses that become certified building partners with ENERGY STAR obtain a competitive advantage. Through two different methods of analysis, an observational analysis and a test of means, data on profitability ratios from twenty-five ENERGY STAR partners are examined to determine if partnering with ENERGY STAR results in a competitive advantage.
The study reported here examined the relationship between executives' career experiences and their beliefs and understandings about the management of diversification. The study identified three broad sets of beliefs or orientations that executives hold about the management of diversification. In spite of a longstanding theoretical basis for hypothesizing that managerial demography will influence cognition, the study found no association between the top managers' career experiences that were considered in this study and their beliefs about the management of diversification. Based on this finding of a lack of relationships between demography and managerial beliefs, the paper offers some new theorizing on the relationship between career experiences and managers' beliefs about the management of diversification. It also suggests some implications for human resource practices, specifically the recruiting and development of top executives in large diversified firms.
The research reported here sought to identify top managers' mental models about the management of diversification and to determine whether these beliefs are associated with important strategic decisions. The study identified three broad sets of beliefs or orientations about the management of diversification that are commonly held by managers of large diversified firms. The study found that these management orientations are significantly associated with a number of key strategic choices, including decisions about the extent of diversification, divestment activity, new product development efforts, and research and development spending. The results offer empirical evidence of the influence of managerial cognition on strategic decision making.
The recent emergence of the Euro, combined with the completion of a decade of North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has sparked interest in adopting a common currency for North America. This study examines the likelihood that Canada, Mexico, and the United States will adopt a common currency under fixed exchange rate regimes. The benefits and costs of a common currency are explored using the theory of optimum currency areas (OCA). Empirical research focuses on several variables including intra-regional and intra-industry trade, trade openness, gross domestic product, inflation rates, interest rates, economic growth rates, business cycle synchronization, factor mobility, fiscal policy and monetary policy coordination. The analysis also presents a comparative analysis of NAFTA with Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) nations on different economic criteria. Finally, correlation and regression analysis further explores the likelihood that members of NAFTA will economically integrate. Though this research concludes that it is economically feasible for NAFTA members to move towards a common currency, this venture depends on the political readiness of the nations.
This paper investigates whether the curricular structure of an Economics course (semester, trimester, or compressed block schedule) has an effect on an undergraduate's subsequent retention of course material. We test separately for theoretical/process comprehension and for graphical construction/interpretation, while separating micro from macro content as well. We use an instrument to address the no stakes testing problem, and our Heckman two-stage estimations present some interesting results for educators and institutional policymakers alike.
In 2006, philanthropic giving to higher education institutions totaled $28 billion, with the top school receiving just under a billion dollars. Roughly fifteen percent of those funds came from alumni donations. This paper builds upon existing economic models to create an econometric model predicting the ever-more important pattern of alumni giving. We test the model using data from over 22,000 alumni at a private liberal arts college, and report on the probable profiles for annual fund donors and alumni willing and able to give major gifts.