The National Hockey League (NHL) has had troubles in the past with turning a profit. However, recently the NHL has improved revenues since the lockout season of 2004- 2005. Even though the league as a whole is doing better, about half the teams each year still have negative revenues. As many different sport studies have shown in the past, that winning teams are able to draw more fans, and thus, more revenue as well. The sole purpose of this study is to find out what helps a team win hockey games, which creates higher attendance, and ultimately, higher revenue. This study accomplishes this by using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) regression along with data from the 2006-2009 seasons to discover the factors that contribute to a NHL team's success. One major finding of this study is that Major Penalties, or more specifically fighting, no longer has a significant impact on helping a team win. By discovering the factors that help a team win, each team can go after the optimal players that will contribute most to winning games.
The music industry has seen many new forms of technology that have helped shape it to become the multi-billon dollar industry it has become today. The Internet is currently changing how artists are distributing their music as well as how consumers are receiving it. The ease of which an artist can distribute their music across the country without the help of a record label has lead to a new question as to whether or not a record contract is still necessary for an artist to succeed in the industry. This study will look at groups from the Front Range of Colorado at different stages in their musical careers to see exactly how they are using the Internet to distribute their music and to find out if any have achieved any level of financial success doing so.
This empirical study examines the impact of proximity to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) toxic release inventory (TRI) sites on the values of residential properties in Colorado Springs in the year 2000. Data from Census Tracts is examined using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and a least squares regression model. The findings indicate that, when controlling for relevant structural and socioeconomic variables, proximity to TRI pollutants are insignificant determinants of residential property values
The value and importance of diversity in one's portfolio has long been postulated, but it was Harry M. Markowitz who proposed the first mathematical model that would allow investors to systematically compute the optimal allocation of assets based on individual preferences (the investor's utility function), covariance, variance, and expected value of returns. Adequate diversification can mitigate risk substantially while potentially enhancing returns. Markowitz provided investors with the tools to optimally diversify their investments.
The modern age of commerce features extensive corporate competition and innovative marketing strategies. It has increasingly become necessary for brands to utilize multisensory marketing and branding strategies that create and maintain strong sensory connections with consumers. This study addresses how multisensory marketing techniques influence the consumer mindset and behavioral responses to sensory stimuli. The investigation includes an in depth summary of the existing theoretical foundations of multisensory marketing and established literature on the subject of sensory branding strategy and design. The exploration answers a fundamental question: do sensory branding techniques and environmental stimuli have a measurable effect upon the consumer? Additionally, the text discusses the problem: how can sensory branding strategies be designed and utilized to effectively and positively influence consumer behavior?
Colorado is a large energy producing state. Compared to other energy producing states, Colorado's current severance tax policies and rates are very lenient towards energy companies. There have been proposals to change these rates and policies but these proposals have been highly contested. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate Colorado's current policies and determine whether new rates and restructuring of the taxes would benefit the state of Colorado and its citizens. This paper uses past data and tax collections to create hypothetical situations for the future of Colorado's severance taxes. By studying the years of 1981-2008 a long range of effects of the potential policy change are examined. Using extraction models, rate changes are determined to have a small effect on the extraction paths and prices for crude oil. Calculations done to determine the effect of an endowment on Colorado's tax payout find a much more stable, but not necessarily larger payout.
Social network marketing is an emerging channel of marketing. It could play a large role with small businesses in their marketing strategies. This thesis looks at the factors that affect the implementation of social network marketing for small businesses. Using models and theories surrounding other forms of direct marketing, this thesis fulfills a role in a marketing media with very little research. Relying on eight interviews with a variety of small business owners in Colorado, this thesis analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of social network marketing.
This thesis estimates the current voting power of each of the voting blocs in the Electoral College. It concludes that the current distribution of power, while significantly improved from the last similar published paper, is still significantly unfair in terms of the one man one vote principle. Since the Electoral College elects the highest authority in the United States, the President, the election should reflect the principle of one man-one vote. An alternative to the Electoral College is presented, based on L.S. Penrose's conclusions on weighted voting, that comes close to solving the issue of one man-one vote while retaining some of the traditions of the Electoral College.
In today's economy, the failure rates of new companies are astronomical. In 2007 there were about twenty-eight thousand businesses that closed. In 2008, about forty-two thousand closed, and that number only continues to grow. With only twenty-nine percent of new businesses start ups succeeding beyond the first ten years, there is little question that the business world is in the midst of a major transition. The economic theorist and bestselling author, Daniel Pink, has developed a six-part theory to cope with this change. His theory contains six essential aptitudes, which will allow one to excel during this transformational time. Pink describes this movement as a transition from the Information Age, which values logical and linear thinking, to the Conceptual Age, which values inventive, empathetic, and big-picture thinking. This study is an empirical investigation of the simultaneous presence of the six essential aptitudes in ten entrepreneurs, five in product-based industries and five in service-based industries. The results suggest that the transition from the Information Age to the Conceptual Age although well underway, is not yet complete.
Live popular music is an area of growing importance. With the proliferation of piracy and online music sources, revenue streams for musicians are shrinking in the 21st Century and live performance is becoming one of the last areas for artists to make a living. This study investigates the determining factors in the success or failure of live popular music events by measuring ticket sales. Using a case study of a venue in Santa Cruz, CA, variables describing event context and expected quality of performance are regressed against final box office sales to uncover any existent relationships. Artist exposure, day of the week, and age restrictions are all found to significantly impact final ticket demand for live music events.
The commercial fishing industry in British Columbia is currently facing a downward trend in production. This paper investigates the factors that are causing this movement, specifically looking at the effects of aquaculture on the industry. This up and coming branch of fish production has seen great economic gains while the commercial fishing sector has been steadily declining. The hypothesis is that aquaculture is having immense adverse effects on the industry and while production in this sector continues to grow, it is causing the commercial sector to flounder. A model is used to identify the factors affecting commercial fishing productivity and to examine if aquaculture is the leading contributor to the recent trend. Data was collected for 28 years examining statistics that may be affecting the industry. Results from the regression models were limited and a clear understanding of the causes could not be reached.
As the economy is in a decline, fewer people are willing to pay for luxuries such as vacations. Thus, the ski resort industry is suffering. This thesis reveals an opportunity m the growth of free skiing and a demand for more difficult terrain. In this paper, data is collected from nearly all Colorado ski resorts to form a regression model explaining resort success. Regression analysis is conducted to discover what aspects of a ski resort contribute to success. Primarily, skier visits from the 2008-2009 ski season are used as the dependent variable in the regression model to measure resort success. Additionally, hedonic pricing theory is applied to test lift ticket price as a dependent variable. The paper finds that resort size, and possibly terrain park features are related to resort success. The hedonic pricing regression finds that bowl skiing, and lack of crowds, increase consumer willingness to pay for expensive lift tickets.
In 2009 the global markets experienced a crash the likes of which had not been seen since the Great Depression. This paper seeks to use principles of behavioral finance to analyze the economic climate generated before, after, and during a "bubble" period. The efficient market model presented by Eugene Fama is unable to explain the phenomenon known as a bubble period. Using traditional and nontraditional stock indicators, this paper will examine the correlation between volume and price in relation to the climate in which bubbles are generated.
This study examines the influences of mergers and acquisitions (M&As) on companies' profitability and compares these influences with economic conditions to discuss their significance. It hypothesizes that market power, total assets and synergistic effects are all positively related to profitability, but they are less significant than the economic influences such as economic growth, consumer confidence and producer confidence. Focusing on the largest U.S. mergers and acquisitions during the period from 1998 to 2003, two economic models are designed to test these hypotheses. The first model examines the relationship between M&A influences and profitability. The test results of this model suggest that market power and total assets are both significant to profitability and that synergistic effects are insignificant. The study also finds that increasing market power is 50 times more efficient than increasing total assets in generating profit. The second model examines the relationship between the economic influences and profitability, but the tests results are inconclusive and suggest that economic factors and profitability have non-linear correlations
In the past half-century, an emphasis on work-life balance has emerged as a result of a changing labor force. Researchers have examined a variety of factors to explain how individual perceptions of work-life balance are influenced; some studies focus mainly on micro factors, such as gender or race, while others look to larger-scale elements such as organizational structure or job characteristics. This thesis sought to compare both micro and macro factors to see if work-life balance was primarily a function of demographic, job, or organization characteristics. A total of 269 professional employees at over 100 domestic and international organizations were surveyed, and results were analyzed using three linear regression models. Out of all the factors that were significant in predicting work-life balance in the models observed, only one—having four or more children—was a condition that organizations cannot control for. Interestingly, all of the other factors that proved significant—job autonomy, average hours worked per week, job pressure, and workplace support—are attributes that organizations can influence. Thus, this thesis suggests that organizations have a powerful role in helping their professional employees achieve a comfortable work-life balance.
This study attempts to explain the effect geographical location has on a National Hockey League (NHL) team's revenue. The effect location has will be compared to other determinants of revenue in the NHL. Data sets were collected from the 2006-2007 and the 2007-2008 seasons. Regression results were analyzed from these data sets. This study found that attendance, city population, and win percentage has a positive and significant effect on revenue.
Beginning in the early 1960's, local governments throughout the United States have implemented growth management policies intended to influence the pattern of development and restrict growth. These regulations affect the conditions of community life by increasing property values, shifting demographics, and altering the delivery of public services. This thesis examines these effects through case studies of the City of Boulder, the City of Berkeley, and the City of Fort Collins, using data primarily from the US Census Bureau. It is hypothesized that the city with the most growth management policies will experience these effects to a greater magnitude. This was found to be partly true; there are other overriding factors that contribute to these changes more so than the presence or absence of growth management policies.
This thesis examines the effects of Team Leadership on a theatrical production. Following the model of Orpheus Chamber Orchestra, an orchestra that has no conductor, this thesis examines the possibility of a theatrical production without the central leadership figure of the director. To study these effects, actors were brought in and asked to be a part of a production wherein they would perform their own roles and also serve as co-directors. This thesis suggests that the Team Leadership Model can be effective if certain pre-conditions are satisfied: actors auditioned based on their ability to work together as a team, a clear structure and outline of responsibilities for all participants, and a reasonable amount of time to allow the team to work together effectively. This thesis found that the Team Leadership Model can be an effective leadership model for a theatrical production, but these pre-conditions must be satisfied.
The prevalence of cooperation among appropriators in common-pool resources contradicts the predictions of the theory of collective action. Understanding the factors that affect the propensity for appropriators to cooperate will yield insights into the role of institutions and social norms in managing resources. An evolutionary game theory model is constructed to show the emergence and stability of a cooperative equilibrium subject to initial conditions. A logit regression model is used to determine the effect social, institutional, and physical variables have on the probability of a cooperative equilibrium emerging in irrigation systems in Nepal. The system location and type of management structure are found to affect the likelihood of cooperation and efficient use of the resource.
Cash-for-clunkers was a program designed to stimulate the economy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Now, the government is initiating a new plan that will provide rebates for household appliances. This research presents estimates of the cost of reducing Carbon Dioxide under Cash-for-clunkers and similar programs for both clothes washers and refrigerators. The estimates suggest that these rebate programs are an expensive way to reduce CO2 emissions. With an average rebate of $4215, baseline scenarios indicate that Cash-for-clunkers costs $370.26 for a one metric ton reduction in CO2, and $414.62 per ton when the scenario includes the incentive to drive more that accompanies owning a more fuel efficient vehicle. The baseline scenarios for refrigerators resulted in a lower cost of $302.03 per metric ton of CO2, while clothes washers were more expensive with a price of $734.68 per metric ton of CO2.
The hop plant is responsible for the distinct flavor and aroma found in every beer. In 2007, poor harvests in Europe and Australia, as well as a depressed market price produced an insufficient world supply of hops. This discrepancy initiated an upwards price shock that has changed the nature of the craft segment of the beer industry. The effective utilization of supply chain risk management techniques allow breweries to decrease their costs and ensure the supply of the raw materials that they need to prosper. In my thesis I chose the medium of a nationwide survey sent to every member of the Brewers Association that provided an email address in the 2009/2010 Brewers Resource Directory as well as three interviews with Colorado brewers of different sizes. I received 110 responses to the survey, including the Sierra Nevada Brewing Co, the Stone Brewing Co and the Odell Brewing Co among others. I conducted my interviews with the Bristol Brewing Co in Colorado Springs, the New Belgium Brewing Co in Fort Collins and MillerCoors in Golden. It is my hypothesis that hops merchants engage in opportunistic pricing structures that quote smaller breweries at higher prices. By forming coops, micro brewers can increase their market power to better negotiate contracts with the hops merchants. I also discuss a variety of strategies that brewers could use to ensure a more stable price and supply of hops.
This paper aims to understand the AIDS concern in India by analyzing two different relations. The first model studies the effect of media sources such as newspapers, radios and television on AIDS-related knowledge among Indian men and women using a twostage hurdle model. The second model looks at the effect of AIDS-related knowledge on the sexual behavior of Indians using the Probit analysis. Both these relationships hint towards the possible problems faced by AIDS campaigns and government programs in combating the HIV epidemic in India. The effect of media in promoting AIDS education, even though statistically significant, is minimal. Moreover, the effect of AIDS knowledge on sexual behavior is very disturbing. Women have insignificant control over their sexual behavior despite their improved knowledge levels. Moreover, men's behavior is barely influenced by their knowledge levels. Thus, increasing AIDS knowledge among Indians is only one of the several crucial steps in controlling the HIV/AIDS epidemic. However, the success of AIDS campaigns and other programs also depend on factors such as improved education levels, better job conditions, enhanced livelihood, and additional resources for the country's healthcare.
Traditionally, defensemen in the National Hockey League (NHL) have been paid unevenly. Statistics measuring offense were applied to defensemen as well. This (along with other factors) resulted in a disparity in salaries between defensemen specializing in offense and defense. In recent years - especially since the lockout and cancellation of the 2004-05 season - defensemen specializing in defensive play became better recognized and paid. However, the salary disparity between offensive and defensive defensemen still exists. The purpose of this study was to analyze this salary disparity by cross-referencing the production (measured more comprehensively than past studies) of defensemen with their salaries. The defensemen were pooled together and designated either "offensive" or "defensive." Data was collected from all defensemen who participated in the 2007-08 NHL season, paired with their ensuing salaries for the 2008-09 season. In total 209 defensemen were studied, 103 offensive and 106 defensive. I anticipated that due to a rise in the recognition of the importance of defensive defensemen, the offensive-defensive salary disparity would not be dramatic. This thesis uses fourteen total independent variables relating to the dependent variable, salary. Three regression models were performed on the 209 defensemen. The regression results showed that there were six significant variables. Age, blocked shots, points-per-game, and shots were found to have a positive impact on salaries. Games played and plus/minus were discovered to negatively affect salaries. The results also show that offensive defensemen are paid almost double the salary of defensive defensemen.
This thesis provides a case study of four major companies' Facebook pages. Comments made by consumers were collected and analyzed for the pages belonging to Dove, BMW, Taco Bell, and Starbucks. This thesis argues that while many believe Facebook to be an extension of Viral Marketing, the case studies provided within show that Facebook is not even a form of marketing. It is an additional but still necessary avenue for the consumer to contact the company.
With the rise of industrialization in developing countries, the Bangladeshi ready-made garment industry has taken off in the last 40 years. With this rise in textile and garment factories, women have been able to participate with much more volume in the Bangladeshi economy because approximately 90% of garment workers in Bangladesh are females. The United States has consistently put import duties on Bangladeshi textile and garment goods higher than those of almost every other LDC, thus affecting the competitive nature of Bangladesh's number one GDP generator; apparel and textiles. This thesis aims to look at the effect that the high US tariff rates on Bangladesh's ready-made garments have on the female employment rate in the Bangladeshi garment factories